There are three methods for displaying formulas in Wikipedia: raw HTML, HTML with math templates (abbreviated here as {{math}}), and a subset of LaTeX implemented with the HTML markup <math></math>
(referred to as LaTeX in this article). Each method has some advantages and some disadvantages, which have evolved over the time with improvements of MediaWiki. The manual of style MOS:MATH has not always evolved accordingly. So the howto recommendations that appear below may differ from those of the manual of style. In this case, they express a consensus resulting of the practice of most experienced members of WikiProject Mathematics and many discussions at Wikipedia talk:WikiProject Mathematics.
For example, the famous Einstein formula can be entered in raw HTML as {{nowrap''E'' {{=}} ''mc''<sup>2</sup>}}
, which is rendered as E = mc^{2} (the template {{nowrap}} is here only for avoiding a line break inside the formula). With {{math}}, it can be entered as {{math''E'' {{=}} ''mc''{{sup2}}}}
, which is rendered as E = mc^{2}. With LaTeX, it is entered as <math>E=mc^2</math>
, and rendered as .
Use of raw HTML
Variable names and many symbols look very different with raw HTML and the other display methods. This may be confusing in the common case where several methods are used in the same article. Moreover, mathematicians who are used to reading and writing texts written with LaTeX often find the raw HTML rendering awful.
So, raw HTML should normally not be used for new content. However, raw HTML is still present in many mathematical articles. It is generally a good practice to convert it to {{math}} format, but coherency must be respected; that is, such a conversion must be done in a whole article, or at least in a whole section. Moreover such a conversion must be identified as such in the edit summary, and it should be avoided making other changes in the same edit. This is for helping other users to identify changes that are possibly controversial (the "diff" of a conversion may be very large, and may hide other changes).
Converting raw HTML to {{math}} is rather simple: when the formula is enclosed with {{nowrap}}, it suffices to change "nowrap" into "math". However if the formula contains an equal sign, one has to add 1= just before the formula for avoiding confusion with the template syntax; for example, {{math1=''E'' = ''mc''{{sup2}}}}
. Also, vertical bars, if any, must either be replaced with {{!}}
or avoided by using {{abs}}
.
LaTeX vs. {{math}}
These two ways of writing mathematical formulas each have their advantages and disadvantages. They are both accepted by the manual of style MOS:MATH. The rendering of variable names is very similar. So having a variable name displayed in the same paragraph with {{math}}
and <math>
is generally not a problem.
The disadvantages of LaTeX are the following: On some browser configurations, LaTeX inline formulas appear with a slight vertical misalignment, or with a font size that is slightly different from that of the surrounding text. This not a problem with a block displayed formula. This is generally also not a real problem with inline formulas that exceed the normal line height (for example formulas with subscripts and superscripts). Also, the use of LaTeX in a piped link or in a section heading should appear in blue in the linked text or the table of content, but they do not. Moreover, links to sections headings containing LaTeX formulas do not work always as expected. Finally, too many LaTeX formulas may significantly increase the processing time of a page.
The disadvantages of {{math}} are the following: not all formulas can be displayed. While it is possible to render a complicated formula with {{math}}, it is often poorly rendered. Except for the most common ones, the rendering of nonalphanumeric Unicode symbols is often very poor and may depend on the browser configuration (misalignment, wrong size, ...). The spaces inside formulas are not managed automatically, and thus need some expertise for being rendered correctly. Except for short formulas, there are much more characters to type for entering a formula, and the source is more difficult to read.
Therefore, the common practice of most members of WikiProject mathematics is the following:
 Use of {{mvar}} and {{math}} for isolated variables and very simple inline formulas
 Use of LaTeX for displayed formulas and more complicated inline formulas
 Use of LaTeX for formulas involving symbols that are not regularly rendered in Unicode (see MOS:BBB)
 Avoid formulas in section headings, and when this is a problem, use raw HTML (see Finite field for an example)
The choice between {{math}} and LaTeX depends on the editor. So converting from a format to another one must be done with stronger reasons than editor preference.
Display format of LaTeX
By default SVG images with nonvisible MathML are generated. PNG images or textonly forms of the LaTeX can be set via user preferences at My Preferences  Appearance  Math.
The hidden MathML can be used by screen readers and other assistive technology. To display the MathML in Firefox:
 Install the Native MathML extension
 Or copy its CSS rules to your Wikipedia user stylesheet.
In either case, you must have fonts that support MathML (see developer.mozilla.org) installed on your system. For copypaste support in Firefox, you can also install MathML Copy.
Use of HTML templates
TeX markup is not the only way to render mathematical formulas. For simple inline formulas, the template {{math}} and its associated templates are often preferred. The following comparison table shows that similar results can be achieved with the two methods. See also Help:Special characters.
TeX syntax  TeX rendering  HTML syntax  HTML rendering  

<math>\alpha</math>

{{math''α''}} or {{mvarα}}

α or α  
<math>f(x) = x^2</math>

{{math''f''(''x'') {{=}} ''x''<sup>2</sup>}}

f(x) = x^{2}  
<math>\sqrt{2}</math>

{{math{{radical2}}}}

√2  
<math>\sqrt{1e^2}</math>

{{math{{radical1 − ''e''<sup>2</sup>}}}}

√1 − e^{2}  
<math>\{1,e,\pi\}</math>

{{math{{mset1, ''e'', ''π''}}}}

{1, e, π}  
<math>z + 1 \leq 2</math>

{{math{{abs''z'' + 1}} ≤ 2}}

z + 1 ≤ 2 
Here is a summary of the mathematical templates:
Care should be taken when writing sets within {{math}}, as braces, equal signs, and vertical bars can conflict with template syntax. The {{mset}} template is available for braces, as shown in the example above. Likewise, {{abs}} encloses its parameter inside vertical bars to help with the pipe character conflicting with template syntax. For a single vertical bar, use {{!}}
, and for an equal sign, use {{=}}
.
In the table below, the codes on the left produce the symbols on the right, but these symbols can also be entered directly in the wikitext either by typing them if they are available on the keyboard, by copypasting them, or by using menus below the edit windows. Normally, lower case greek letters should be entered in italics, that is, enclosed between two single quotes (''
).
HTML syntax  Rendering 

α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ λ μ ν ξ ο π ρ σ ς τ υ φ χ ψ ω 
α β γ δ ε ζ 
Γ Δ Θ Λ Ξ Π Σ Φ Ψ Ω 
Γ Δ Θ Λ Ξ Π 
∫ ∑ ∏ √ − ± ∞ ≈ ∝ = ≡ ≠ ≤ ≥ × · ⋅ ÷ ∂ ′ ″ ∇ ‰ ° ∴ ∅ 
∫ ∑ ∏ √ − ± ∞ 
∈ ∉ ∩ ∪ ⊂ ⊃ ⊆ ⊇ ¬ ∧ ∨ ∃ ∀ ⇒ ⇔ → ↔ ↑ ↓ ℵ  – — 
∈ ∉ ∩ ∪ ⊂ ⊃ ⊆ ⊇ 
LaTeX basics
Math markup goes inside <math>...</math>
. Chemistry markup goes inside <math chem>...</math>
or <chem>...</chem>
. All these tags use TeX.
The TeX code has to be put literally: MediaWiki templates, predefined templates, and parameters cannot be used within math tags: pairs of double braces are ignored and "#" gives an error message. However, math tags work in the then and else part of #if, etc. See m:Template:Demo of attempt to use parameters within TeX (backlinks ) for more information.
The now deprecated tag <ce>
was considered too ambiguous, and it has been replaced by <chem>
.^{[1]}
LaTeX commands
LaTeX commands are casesensitive, and take one of the following two formats:
 They start with a backslash
\
and then have a name consisting of letters only. Command names are terminated by a space, a number or any other "nonletter".  They consist of a backslash
\
and exactly one nonletter.
Some commands need an argument, which has to be given between curly braces {}
after the command name. Some commands support optional parameters, which are added after the command name in square brackets []
. The general syntax is:
\commandname[option1,option2,...]{argument1}{argument2}...
Special characters
The following symbols are reserved characters that either have a special meaning under LaTeX or are unavailable in all the fonts. If you enter them directly in your text, they will normally not render, but rather do things you did not intend.
# $ % ^ & _ { } ~ \
These characters can be entered by prefixing the escape character backslash \
or using special sequences:
\# \$ \% ^\wedge \& \_ \{ \} \sim \backslash
yielding
The backslash character \
can not be entered by adding another backslash in front of it (\\
); this sequence is used for line breaking. For introducing a backslash in math mode, you can use \backslash
instead which gives .
The command \tilde
produces a tilde which is placed over the next letter. For example, \tilde{a}
gives . To produce just a tilde character ~, use \tilde{}
which gives , placing a ~ over an empty box. Alternatively \sim
produces , a large centred ~ which may be more appropriate in some situations.
The command \hat
produces a hat over the next character, for example \hat{o}
produces . For a stretchable version use \widehat{abc}
giving . The wedge \wedge
is normally used as a mathematical operator the sequence ^\wedge
produces the best equivalent to the ASCII caret ^ character.
Spaces
"Whitespace" characters, such as blank or tab, are treated uniformly as "space" by LaTeX. Several consecutive whitespace characters are treated as one "space". See below for commands that produces spaces of different size.
LaTeX environments
Environments in LaTeX have a role that is quite similar to commands, but they usually have effect on a wider part of formula. Their syntax is:
\begin{environmentname}
text to be influenced
\end{environmentname}
Environments supported by Wikipedia include matrix, align, etc. See below.
Rendering
The font sizes and types are independent of browser settings or CSS. Font sizes and types will often deviate from what HTML renders. Vertical alignment with the surrounding text can also be a problem; a workaround is described in the "Alignment with normal text flow" section below. The CSS selector of the images is img.tex
.
An alt text of the PNG images, shown to visually impaired and others who cannot see the images, and is also used when the text is selected and copied, defaults to the wikitext that produced the image, excluding the <math>
and </math>
. In older versions of MediaWiki, You can override this by explicitly making an alt
attribute for the math
element. <math alt="Square root of pi">\sqrt{\pi}</math>
generates an image whose alt text is "Square root of pi". This should not be confused with the title attribute that produces popup text when the hovering over the PNG image, for example <math title="pi">\pi</math>
generates an image whose popup text is "pi". The override was removed in 2016.
Apart from function and operator names, as is customary in mathematics, variables and letters are in italics; digits are not. For other text, (like variable labels) to avoid being rendered in italics like variables, use \text
or \mathrm
(formerly \rm
). You can also define new function names using \operatorname{...}
. For example, \text{abc}
gives . \operatorname{...}
provides spacing before and after the operator name when appropriate, as when a\operatorname{sn}b
is rendered as (with space to the left and right of "sn") and a\operatorname{sn}(b+c)
as (with space to the left and not to the right). LaTeX's starred version, \operatorname*
is not supported, but a workaround is to add \limits
instead. For example, \operatorname{sn}_{b>c}(b+c) \qquad \operatorname{sn}\limits_{b>c}(b+c)
renders as
 .
LaTeX does not have full support for Unicode characters, and not all characters render. Most Latin characters with accents render correctly. However some do not, in particular those that include multiple diacritics (e.g. with Latin letters used in Vietnamese) or that cannot be precomposed into a single character (such as the uppercase Latin letter W with ring), or that use other diacritics (like the ogonek or the double grave accent, used in Central European languages like Polish, or the horn attached above some vowels in Vietnamese), or other modified letter forms (used in IPA notations, or African languages, or in medieval texts), some digram ligatures (like Ĳ in Dutch), or Latin letters borrowed from Greek, or small capitals, as well as superscripts and subscript letters. For example, \text{ð}
and \text{þ}
(used in Icelandic) will give errors.
The normal way of entering quotation marks in text mode (two back ticks for the left and two apostrophes for the right), such as \text{a ``quoted'' word}
will not work correctly. As a workaround, you can use the Unicode left and right quotation mark characters, which are available from the "Symbols" dropdown panel beneath the editor: \text{a “quoted” word}
.
Forcererendering of formulas
MediaWiki stores rendered formulas in a cache so that the images of those formulas do not need to be created each time the page is opened by a user. To force the rerendering of all formulas of a page, you must open it with the getter variables action=purge&mathpurge=true
. Imagine for example there is a wrong rendered formula in the article Integral. To force the rerendering of this formula you need to open the URL https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Integral&action=purge&mathpurge=true . Afterwards you need to bypass your browser cache so that the new created images of the formulas are actually downloaded.
Formatting using TeX
Functions, symbols, special characters
Accents and diacritics  

\dot{a}, \ddot{a}, \acute{a}, \grave{a}


\check{a}, \breve{a}, \tilde{a}, \bar{a}


\hat{a}, \widehat{a}, \vec{a}


Standard numerical functions  
\exp_a b = a^b, \exp b = e^b, 10^m


\ln c, \lg d = \log e, \log_{10} f


\sin a, \cos b, \tan c, \cot d, \sec e, \csc f


\arcsin h, \arccos i, \arctan j


\sinh k, \cosh l, \tanh m, \coth n


\operatorname{sh}k, \operatorname{ch}l, \operatorname{th}m, \operatorname{coth}n


\operatorname{argsh}o, \operatorname{argch}p, \operatorname{argth}q


\sgn r, \left\vert s \right\vert


\min(x,y), \max(x,y)


Bounds  
\min x, \max y, \inf s, \sup t


\lim u, \liminf v, \limsup w


\dim p, \deg q, \det m, \ker\phi


Projections  
\Pr j, \hom l, \lVert z \rVert, \arg z


Differentials and derivatives  
dt, \mathrm{d}t, \partial t, \nabla\psi


dy/dx, \mathrm{d}y/\mathrm{d}x, \frac{dy}{dx}, \frac{\mathrm{d}y}{\mathrm{d}x}, \frac{\partial^2}{\partial x_1\partial x_2}y


\prime, \backprime, f^\prime, f', f'', f^{(3)}, \dot y, \ddot y


Letterlike symbols or constants  
\infty, \aleph, \complement, \backepsilon, \eth, \Finv, \hbar


\Im, \imath, \jmath, \Bbbk, \ell, \mho, \wp, \Re, \circledS, \S, \P, \AA


Modular arithmetic  
s_k \equiv 0 \pmod{m}


a \bmod b


\gcd(m, n), \operatorname{lcm}(m, n)


\mid, \nmid, \shortmid, \nshortmid


Radicals  
\surd, \sqrt{2}, \sqrt[n]{2}, \sqrt[3]{\frac{x^3+y^3}{2}}


Operators  
+, , \pm, \mp, \dotplus


\times, \div, \divideontimes, /, \backslash


\cdot, * \ast, \star, \circ, \bullet


\boxplus, \boxminus, \boxtimes, \boxdot


\oplus, \ominus, \otimes, \oslash, \odot


\circleddash, \circledcirc, \circledast


\bigoplus, \bigotimes, \bigodot


Sets  
\{ \}, \O \empty \emptyset, \varnothing


\in, \notin \not\in, \ni, \not\ni


\cap, \Cap, \sqcap, \bigcap


\cup, \Cup, \sqcup, \bigcup, \bigsqcup, \uplus, \biguplus


\setminus, \smallsetminus, \times


\subset, \Subset, \sqsubset


\supset, \Supset, \sqsupset


\subseteq, \nsubseteq, \subsetneq, \varsubsetneq, \sqsubseteq


\supseteq, \nsupseteq, \supsetneq, \varsupsetneq, \sqsupseteq


\subseteqq, \nsubseteqq, \subsetneqq, \varsubsetneqq


\supseteqq, \nsupseteqq, \supsetneqq, \varsupsetneqq


Relations  
=, \ne, \neq, \equiv, \not\equiv


\doteq, \doteqdot, \overset{\underset{\mathrm{def}}{}}{=}, :=


\sim, \nsim, \backsim, \thicksim, \simeq, \backsimeq, \eqsim, \cong, \ncong


\approx, \thickapprox, \approxeq, \asymp, \propto, \varpropto


<, \nless, \ll, \not\ll, \lll, \not\lll, \lessdot


>, \ngtr, \gg, \not\gg, \ggg, \not\ggg, \gtrdot


\le, \leq, \lneq, \leqq, \nleq, \nleqq, \lneqq, \lvertneqq


\ge, \geq, \gneq, \geqq, \ngeq, \ngeqq, \gneqq, \gvertneqq


\lessgtr, \lesseqgtr, \lesseqqgtr, \gtrless, \gtreqless, \gtreqqless


\leqslant, \nleqslant, \eqslantless


\geqslant, \ngeqslant, \eqslantgtr


\lesssim, \lnsim, \lessapprox, \lnapprox


\gtrsim, \gnsim, \gtrapprox, \gnapprox


\prec, \nprec, \preceq, \npreceq, \precneqq


\succ, \nsucc, \succeq, \nsucceq, \succneqq


\preccurlyeq, \curlyeqprec


\succcurlyeq, \curlyeqsucc


\precsim, \precnsim, \precapprox, \precnapprox


\succsim, \succnsim, \succapprox, \succnapprox


Geometric  
\parallel, \nparallel, \shortparallel, \nshortparallel


\perp, \angle, \sphericalangle, \measuredangle, 45^\circ


\Box, \square, \blacksquare, \diamond, \Diamond, \lozenge, \blacklozenge, \bigstar


\bigcirc, \triangle, \bigtriangleup, \bigtriangledown


\vartriangle, \triangledown


\blacktriangle, \blacktriangledown, \blacktriangleleft, \blacktriangleright


Logic  
\forall, \exists, \nexists


\therefore, \because, \And


\lor \vee, \curlyvee, \bigvee
don't use 

\land \wedge, \curlywedge, \bigwedge
don't use 

\bar{q}, \bar{abc}, \overline{q}, \overline{abc},


\vdash \dashv, \vDash, \Vdash, \models


\Vvdash \nvdash \nVdash \nvDash \nVDash


\ulcorner \urcorner \llcorner \lrcorner


Arrows  
\Rrightarrow, \Lleftarrow


\Rightarrow, \nRightarrow, \Longrightarrow, \implies


\Leftarrow, \nLeftarrow, \Longleftarrow


\Leftrightarrow, \nLeftrightarrow, \Longleftrightarrow, \iff


\Uparrow, \Downarrow, \Updownarrow


\rightarrow \to, \nrightarrow, \longrightarrow


\leftarrow \gets, \nleftarrow, \longleftarrow


\leftrightarrow, \nleftrightarrow, \longleftrightarrow


\uparrow, \downarrow, \updownarrow


\nearrow, \swarrow, \nwarrow, \searrow


\mapsto, \longmapsto


\rightharpoonup \rightharpoondown \leftharpoonup \leftharpoondown \upharpoonleft \upharpoonright \downharpoonleft \downharpoonright \rightleftharpoons \leftrightharpoons


\curvearrowleft \circlearrowleft \Lsh \upuparrows \rightrightarrows \rightleftarrows \rightarrowtail \looparrowright


\curvearrowright \circlearrowright \Rsh \downdownarrows \leftleftarrows \leftrightarrows \leftarrowtail \looparrowleft


\hookrightarrow \hookleftarrow \multimap \leftrightsquigarrow \rightsquigarrow \twoheadrightarrow \twoheadleftarrow


Special  
\amalg \P \S \% \dagger \ddagger \ldots \cdots


\smile \frown \wr \triangleleft \triangleright


\diamondsuit, \heartsuit, \clubsuit, \spadesuit, \Game, \flat, \natural, \sharp


Unsorted (new stuff)  
\diagup \diagdown \centerdot \ltimes \rtimes \leftthreetimes \rightthreetimes


\eqcirc \circeq \triangleq \bumpeq \Bumpeq \doteqdot \risingdotseq \fallingdotseq


\intercal \barwedge \veebar \doublebarwedge \between \pitchfork


\vartriangleleft \ntriangleleft \vartriangleright \ntriangleright


\trianglelefteq \ntrianglelefteq \trianglerighteq \ntrianglerighteq

For a little more semantics on these symbols, see the brief TeX Cookbook.
Larger expressions
Subscripts, superscripts, integrals
Feature  Syntax  How it looks rendered 

Superscript  a^2, a^{x+3} 

Subscript  a_2 

Grouping  10^{30} a^{2+2} 

a_{i,j} b_{f'} 

Combining sub & super without and with horizontal separation  x_2^3 

{x_2}^3 

Super super  10^{10^{8}} 

Preceding and/or additional sub & super  \sideset{_1^2}{_3^4}\prod_a^b 

{}_1^2\!\Omega_3^4 

Stacking  \overset{\alpha}{\omega} 

\underset{\alpha}{\omega} 

\overset{\alpha}{\underset{\gamma}{\omega}} 

\stackrel{\alpha}{\omega} 

Derivatives  x', y'', f', f'' 

x^\prime, y^{\prime\prime} 

Derivative dots  \dot{x}, \ddot{x} 

Underlines, overlines, vectors  \hat a \ \bar b \ \vec c 

\overrightarrow{a b} \ \overleftarrow{c d} \ \widehat{d e f} 

\overline{g h i} \ \underline{j k l} 

Arc (workaround)  \overset{\frown} {AB} 

Arrows  A \xleftarrow{n+\mu1} B \xrightarrow[T]{n\pm i1} C 

Overbraces  \overbrace{ 1+2+\cdots+100 }^{5050} 

Underbraces  \underbrace{ a+b+\cdots+z }_{26} 

Sum  \sum_{k=1}^N k^2 

Sum (force \textstyle )

\textstyle \sum_{k=1}^N k^2 

Sum in a fraction (default \textstyle )

\frac{\sum_{k=1}^N k^2}{a} 

Sum in a fraction (force \displaystyle )

\frac{\displaystyle \sum_{k=1}^N k^2}{a} 

Sum in a fraction (alternative limits style)  \frac{\sum\limits^{^N}_{k=1} k^2}{a} 

Product  \prod_{i=1}^N x_i 

Product (force \textstyle )

\textstyle \prod_{i=1}^N x_i 

Coproduct  \coprod_{i=1}^N x_i 

Coproduct (force \textstyle )

\textstyle \coprod_{i=1}^N x_i 

Limit  \lim_{n \to \infty}x_n 

Limit (force \textstyle )

\textstyle \lim_{n \to \infty}x_n 

Integral  \int\limits_{1}^{3}\frac{e^3/x}{x^2}\, dx 

Integral (alternative limits style)  \int_{1}^{3}\frac{e^3/x}{x^2}\, dx 

Integral (force \textstyle )

\textstyle \int\limits_{N}^{N} e^x dx 

Integral (force \textstyle , alternative limits style)

\textstyle \int_{N}^{N} e^x dx 

Double integral  \iint\limits_D dx\,dy 

Triple integral  \iiint\limits_E dx\,dy\,dz 

Quadruple integral  \iiiint\limits_F dx\,dy\,dz\,dt 

Line or path integral  \int_{(x,y)\in C} x^3\, dx + 4y^2\, dy 

Closed line or path integral  \oint_{(x,y)\in C} x^3\, dx + 4y^2\, dy 

Intersections  \bigcap_{i=1}^n E_i 

Unions  \bigcup_{i=1}^n E_i 
Display attribute
The <math>
tag can take a display
attribute with possible values of inline
and block
.
Inline
If the value of the display attribute is inline, the contents will be rendered in inline mode: there will be no new paragraph for the equation and the operators will be rendered to consume only a small amount of vertical space.
The sum converges to 2.
The next linewidth is not disturbed by large operators.
The code for the math example reads:
<math display="inline">\sum_{i=0}^\infty 2^{i}</math>
The quotation marks around inline
are optional and display=inline
is also valid.^{[2]}
Technical implementation
Technically the command \textstyle will be added to the user input before the TeX command is passed to the renderer. The result will be displayed without further formatting by outputting the image or MathMLelement to the page.
Block
In blockstyle the equation is rendered in its own paragraph and the operators are rendered consuming less horizontal space. The equation is indented.
The sum
It was entered as
<math display="block">\sum_{i=0}^\infty 2^{i}</math>
Technical implementation
Technically the command \displaystyle will be added to the user input (if the user input does not already contain the string \displaystyle or \align) before the TeX command is passed to the renderer. The result will be displayed in a new paragraph. Therefore, the style of the MathImage is altered i.e. the style attribute "display:block;margin:auto" is added. For MathML it is ensured that display=inline is replaced by display block which produces a new paragraph
Not specified
If nothing is specified the equation is rendered in the same display style as "block", but without using a new paragraph. If the equation does appear on a line by itself, it is not automatically indented.
The sum converges to 2.
The next linewidth is disturbed by large operators.
Or:
The sum
converges to 2.
In both cases, the math is coded as:
<math>\sum_{i=0}^\infty 2^{i}</math>
Fractions, matrices, multilines
Feature  Syntax  How it looks rendered 

Fractions  \frac{2}{4}=0.5 or {2 \over 4}=0.5


Small fractions (force \textstyle )

\tfrac{2}{4} = 0.5


Large (normal) fractions (force \displaystyle )

\dfrac{2}{4} = 0.5 \qquad \dfrac{2}{c + \dfrac{2}{d + \dfrac{2}{4}}} = a


Large (nested) fractions  \cfrac{2}{c + \cfrac{2}{d + \cfrac{2}{4}}} = a


Cancellations in fractions  \cfrac{x}{1 + \cfrac{\cancel{y}}{\cancel{y}}} = \cfrac{x}{2}


Binomial coefficients  \binom{n}{k}


Small binomial coefficients (force \textstyle )

\tbinom{n}{k}


Large (normal) binomial coefficients (force \displaystyle )

\dbinom{n}{k}


Matrices  \begin{matrix}
x & y \\
z & v
\end{matrix}


\begin{vmatrix}
x & y \\
z & v
\end{vmatrix}


\begin{Vmatrix}
x & y \\
z & v
\end{Vmatrix}


\begin{bmatrix}
0 & \cdots & 0 \\
\vdots & \ddots & \vdots \\
0 & \cdots & 0
\end{bmatrix}


\begin{Bmatrix}
x & y \\
z & v
\end{Bmatrix}


\begin{pmatrix}
x & y \\
z & v
\end{pmatrix}


\bigl( \begin{smallmatrix}
a&b\\ c&d
\end{smallmatrix} \bigr)


Case distinctions  f(n) =
\begin{cases}
n/2, & \text{if }n\text{ is even} \\
3n+1, & \text{if }n\text{ is odd}
\end{cases}


Simultaneous equations  \begin{cases}
3x + 5y + z \\
7x  2y + 4z \\
6x + 3y + 2z
\end{cases}


Multiline equations  \begin{align}
f(x) & = (a+b)^2 \\
& = a^2+2ab+b^2 \\
\end{align}


\begin{alignat}{2}
f(x) & = (ab)^2 \\
& = a^22ab+b^2 \\
\end{alignat}


Multiline equations with multiple alignments per row  \begin{align}
f(a,b) & = (a+b)^2 && = (a+b)(a+b) \\
& = a^2+ab+ba+b^2 && = a^2+2ab+b^2 \\
\end{align}


\begin{alignat}{3}
f(a,b) & = (a+b)^2 && = (a+b)(a+b) \\
& = a^2+ab+ba+b^2 && = a^2+2ab+b^2 \\
\end{alignat}


Multiline equations (must define number of columns used ({lcl})) (should not be used unless needed)  \begin{array}{lcl}
z & = & a \\
f(x,y,z) & = & x + y + z
\end{array}


Multiline equations (more)  \begin{array}{lcr}
z & = & a \\
f(x,y,z) & = & x + y + z
\end{array}


Multiline alignment using & to left align (top example) versus && to right align (bottom example) the last column

\begin{alignat}{4}
F:\; && C(X) && \;\to\; & C(X) \\
&& g && \;\mapsto\; & g^2
\end{alignat}
\begin{alignat}{4}
F:\; && C(X) && \;\to\; && C(X) \\
&& g && \;\mapsto\; && g^2
\end{alignat}


Breaking up a long expression so that it wraps when necessary, at the expense of destroying correct spacing  <math>f(x) \,\!</math>
<math>= \sum_{n=0}^\infty a_n x^n </math>
<math>= a_0+a_1x+a_2x^2+\cdots</math>


Arrays  \begin{array}{ccc} a & b & S \\
\hline
0 & 0 & 1 \\
0 & 1 & 1 \\
1 & 0 & 1 \\
1 & 1 & 0 \\
\end{array}

Parenthesizing big expressions, brackets, bars
Feature  Syntax  How it looks rendered 

Bad  ( \frac{1}{2} )^n


Good  \left ( \frac{1}{2} \right )^n

You can use various delimiters with \left and \right:
Feature  Syntax  How it looks rendered 

Parentheses  \left ( \frac{a}{b} \right )


Brackets  \left [ \frac{a}{b} \right ] \quad \left \lbrack \frac{a}{b} \right \rbrack


Braces  \left \{ \frac{a}{b} \right \} \quad \left \lbrace \frac{a}{b} \right \rbrace


Angle brackets  \left \langle \frac{a}{b} \right \rangle


Bars and double bars  \left  \frac{a}{b} \right \vert \quad \left \Vert \frac{c}{d} \right \


Floor and ceiling functions:  \left \lfloor \frac{a}{b} \right \rfloor \quad \left \lceil \frac{c}{d} \right \rceil


Slashes and backslashes  \left / \frac{a}{b} \right \backslash


Up, down, and updown arrows  \left \uparrow \frac{a}{b} \right \downarrow \quad \left \Uparrow \frac{a}{b} \right \Downarrow \quad \left \updownarrow \frac{a}{b} \right \Updownarrow


Delimiters can be mixed, as long as \left and \right match 
\left [ 0,1 \right ) \left \langle \psi \right 


Use \left. and \right. if you do not want a delimiter to appear 
\left . \frac{A}{B} \right \} \to X


Size of the delimiters (add "l" or "r" to indicate the side for proper spacing)  ( \bigl( \Bigl( \biggl( \Biggl( \dots \Biggr] \biggr] \Bigr] \bigr] ]


\{ \bigl\{ \Bigl\{ \biggl\{ \Biggl\{ \dots \Biggr\rangle \biggr\rangle \Bigr\rangle \bigr\rangle \rangle


\ \big\ \Big\ \bigg\ \Bigg\ \dots \Bigg \bigg \Big \big 


\lfloor \bigl\lfloor \Bigl\lfloor \biggl\lfloor \Biggl\lfloor \dots \Biggr\rceil \biggr\rceil \Bigr\rceil \bigr\rceil \ceil


\uparrow \big\uparrow \Big\uparrow \bigg\uparrow \Bigg\uparrow \dots \Bigg\Downarrow \bigg\Downarrow \Big\Downarrow \big\Downarrow \Downarrow


\updownarrow \big\updownarrow \Big\updownarrow \bigg\updownarrow \Bigg\updownarrow \dots \Bigg\Updownarrow \bigg\Updownarrow \Big\Updownarrow \big\Updownarrow \Updownarrow


/ \big/ \Big/ \bigg/ \Bigg/ \dots \Bigg\backslash \bigg\backslash \Big\backslash \big\backslash \backslash

Equation numbering
The templates {{NumBlk}} and {{EquationRef}} can be used to number equations. The template {{EquationNote}} can be used to refer to a numbered equation from surrounding text. For example, the following syntax:
{{NumBlk:<math>x^2 + y^2 + z^2 = 1</math>{{EquationRef1}}}}
produces the following result (note the equation number in the right margin):

(1)
Later on, the text can refer to this equation by its number using syntax like this:
As seen in equation ({{EquationNote1}}), blah blah blah...
The result looks like this:
 As seen in equation (1), blah blah blah...
The equation number produced by {{EquationNote}} is a link that the user can click to go immediately to the cited equation.
Alphabets and typefaces
Texvc cannot render arbitrary Unicode characters. Those it can handle can be entered by the expressions below. For others, such as Cyrillic, they can be entered as Unicode or HTML entities in running text, but cannot be used in displayed formulas.
Greek alphabet  

\Alpha \Beta \Gamma \Delta \Epsilon \Zeta \Eta \Theta


\Iota \Kappa \Lambda \Mu \Nu \Xi \Omicron \Pi


\Rho \Sigma \Tau \Upsilon \Phi \Chi \Psi \Omega


\alpha \beta \gamma \delta \epsilon \zeta \eta \theta


\iota \kappa \lambda \mu \nu \xi \omicron \pi


\rho \sigma \tau \upsilon \phi \chi \psi \omega


\varGamma \varDelta \varTheta \varLambda \varXi \varPi \varSigma \varPhi \varUpsilon \varOmega


\varepsilon \digamma \varkappa \varpi \varrho \varsigma \vartheta \varphi


Hebrew symbols  
\aleph \beth \gimel \daleth


Blackboard bold/scripts  
\mathbb{ABCDEFGHI}


\mathbb{JKLMNOPQR}


\mathbb{STUVWXYZ}


Boldface  
\mathbf{ABCDEFGHI}


\mathbf{JKLMNOPQR}


\mathbf{STUVWXYZ}


\mathbf{abcdefghijklm}


\mathbf{nopqrstuvwxyz}


\mathbf{0123456789}


Boldface (Greek)  
\boldsymbol{\Alpha \Beta \Gamma \Delta \Epsilon \Zeta \Eta \Theta}


\boldsymbol{\Iota \Kappa \Lambda \Mu \Nu \Xi \Omicron \Pi}


\boldsymbol{\Rho \Sigma \Tau \Upsilon \Phi \Chi \Psi \Omega}


\boldsymbol{\alpha \beta \gamma \delta \epsilon \zeta \eta \theta}


\boldsymbol{\iota \kappa \lambda \mu \nu \xi \omicron \pi}


\boldsymbol{\rho \sigma \tau \upsilon \phi \chi \psi \omega}


\boldsymbol{\varepsilon\digamma\varkappa\varpi}


\boldsymbol{\varrho\varsigma\vartheta\varphi}


Italics (default for Latin alphabet)  
\mathit{0123456789}


Greek italics (default for lowercase Greek)  
\mathit{\Alpha \Beta \Gamma \Delta \Epsilon \Zeta \Eta \Theta}


\mathit{\Iota \Kappa \Lambda \Mu \Nu \Xi \Omicron \Pi}


\mathit{\Rho \Sigma \Tau \Upsilon \Phi \Chi \Psi \Omega}


Greek uppercase boldface italics  
\boldsymbol{\varGamma \varDelta \varTheta \varLambda}


\boldsymbol{\varXi \varPi \varSigma \varUpsilon \varOmega}


Roman typeface  
\mathrm{ABCDEFGHI}


\mathrm{JKLMNOPQR}


\mathrm{STUVWXYZ}


\mathrm{abcdefghijklm}


\mathrm{nopqrstuvwxyz}


\mathrm{0123456789}


Sans serif  
\mathsf{ABCDEFGHI}


\mathsf{JKLMNOPQR}


\mathsf{STUVWXYZ}


\mathsf{abcdefghijklm}


\mathsf{nopqrstuvwxyz}


\mathsf{0123456789}


Sans serif Greek (capital only)  
\mathsf{\Alpha \Beta \Gamma \Delta \Epsilon \Zeta \Eta \Theta}


\mathsf{\Iota \Kappa \Lambda \Mu \Nu \Xi \Omicron \Pi}


\mathsf{\Rho \Sigma \Tau \Upsilon \Phi \Chi \Psi \Omega}


Calligraphy/script  
\mathcal{ABCDEFGHI}


\mathcal{JKLMNOPQR}


\mathcal{STUVWXYZ}


\mathcal{abcdefghi}


\mathcal{jklmnopqr}


\mathcal{stuvwxyz}


Fraktur typeface  
\mathfrak{ABCDEFGHI}


\mathfrak{JKLMNOPQR}


\mathfrak{STUVWXYZ}


\mathfrak{abcdefghijklm}


\mathfrak{nopqrstuvwxyz}


\mathfrak{0123456789}


Small scriptstyle text  
{\scriptstyle\text{abcdefghijklm}}

Mixed text faces
Feature  Syntax  How it looks rendered 

Italicised characters (spaces are ignored)  x y z


Nonitalicised characters  \text{x y z}


Mixed italics (bad)  \text{if} n \text{is even}


Mixed italics (good)  \text{if }n\text{ is even}


Mixed italics (alternative: ~ or "\ " forces a space)  \text{if}~n\ \text{is even}

Color
Equations can use color with the \color
command. For example,
{\color{Blue}x^2}+{\color{Orange}2x}{\color{LimeGreen}1}
x_{1,2}=\frac{{\color{Blue}b}\pm\sqrt{\color{Red}b^24ac}}{\color{Green}2a }
There are several alternate notations styles
{\color{Blue}x^2}+{\color{Orange}2x}{\color{LimeGreen}1}
works with both texvc and MathJax\color{Blue}x^2\color{Black}+\color{Orange}2x\color{Black}\color{LimeGreen}1
works with both texvc and MathJax\color{Blue}{x^2}+\color{Orange}{2x}\color{LimeGreen}{1}
only works with MathJax
Some color names are predeclared according to the following table, you can use them directly for the rendering of formulas (or for declaring the intended color of the page background).
Color should not be used as the only way to identify something, because it will become meaningless on blackandwhite media or for colorblind people. See WP:Manual of Style (accessibility)#Color.
Latex does not have a command for setting the background color. The most effective way of setting a background color is by setting a CSS styling rule for a table cell:
{ class="wikitable" align="center"  style="backgroundcolor: gray;"  <math>x^2</math>  style="backgroundcolor: Goldenrod;"  <math>y^3</math> }
Rendered as:
Custom colors can be defined using:
\definecolor{myorange}{rgb}{1,0.65,0.4}\color{myorange}e^{i \pi}\color{Black} + 1 = 0
Formatting issues
Spacing
TeX handles most spacing automatically, but you may sometimes want manual control.
Feature  Syntax  How it looks rendered 

double quad space  a \qquad b 

quad space  a \quad b 

text space  a\ b 

text space in text mode  a \text{ } b 

large space  a\;b 

medium space  a\<b 
Not supported 
small space  a\,b 

tiny space (use for multiplication of factors)  ab 

tiny space (syntax space ignored)  a b 

no space (use for multiletter variables)  \mathit{ab} 

small negative space  a\!b 

zerowidth space  a\hspace{0pt}b 
Not supported 
Automatic spacing may be broken in very long expressions (because they produce an overfull hbox in TeX):
0+1+2+3+4+5+6+7+8+9+10+11+12+13+14+15+16+17+18+19+20+\cdots
This can be remedied by putting a pair of braces { } around the whole expression:
{0+1+2+3+4+5+6+7+8+9+10+11+12+13+14+15+16+17+18+19+20+\cdots}
When relational symbols such as are employed as ordinary symbols, for example in bra–ket notation, additional spacing may have to be avoided:
Feature  Syntax  How it looks rendered 

without special formatting   \uparrow \rangle


explicit opening and closing delimiter  \left \uparrow \right\rangle


with additional braces   {\uparrow} \rangle


arrow as ordinary symbol   \mathord\uparrow \rangle

Alignment with normal text flow
Because of the default CSS
img.tex { verticalalign: middle; }
an inline expression like should look good.
If you need to align it otherwise, use <math style="verticalalign:100%;">...</math>
and play with the verticalalign
argument until you get it right; however, how it looks may depend on the browser and the browser settings.
If you rely on this workaround, if and when the rendering on the server gets fixed in a future release, this extra manual offset will suddenly make every affected formula align incorrectly. So use it sparingly, if at all.
Unimplemented elements and workarounds
The current Mathoid–MathJax backend has the following elements unimplemented (see also MathJax's own description of differences):
\oiint
and \oiiint
Elements which are not yet implemented are \oiint
, namely a twofold integral \iint
() with a circular curve through the centre of the two integrals, and similarly \oiiint
, a circular curve through three integrals. In contrast, \oint
() exists for the single dimension (integration over a curved line within a plane or any space with higher dimension).
These elements appear in many contexts: \oiint
denotes a surface integral over the closed 2d boundary of a 3d region (which occurs in much of 3d vector calculus and physical applications – like Maxwell's equations), likewise \oiiint
denotes integration over the closed 3d boundary (surface volume) of a 4d region, and they would be strong candidates for the next TeX version. As such there are a lot of workarounds in the present version.
\oiint
and\oiiint
using currently implemented symbols\oiint
looks like: , which uses
\iint
along with\subset
and\supset
(overdrawn after backspacing):
\iint\limits_{S}\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\subset\!\supset \mathbf D \cdot \mathrm{d}\mathbf A
 , which uses
\int
twice (with some backward kerning) along with\bigcirc
(also overdrawn after backpacing) to produce a more consistent circle:
\int\!\!\!\!\int_{\partial V}\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\;\;\;\bigcirc\,\,\mathbf D\cdot\mathrm{d}\mathbf A
\oiiint
(should also be preferably more tightly kerned) looks more or less like: which uses three \int symbols (with more backward kerning) with \subset and \supset (overdrawn after backspacing):
\int\!\!\!\!\!\int\!\!\!\!\!\int_{\partial V}\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\;\;\;\subset\!\supset \mathbf D\;\cdot\mathrm{d}\mathbf A
 , which uses three
\int
symbols (with more backward kerning) along with\bigcirc
(also overdrawn after backspacing):
\int\!\!\!\!\!\int\!\!\!\!\!\int_{\partial V}\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\;\;\;\bigcirc\,\,\mathbf D\;\cdot\mathrm{d}\mathbf A
 , which uses
However, since no standardisation exists as yet, any workaround like this (which uses many \!
symbols for backspacing) should be avoided, if possible. See below for a possibility using PNG image enforcement.
Note that \iint
(the double integral) and \iiint
(the triple integral) are still not kerned as they should preferably be, and are currently rendered as if they were successive \int
symbols; this is not a major problem for reading the formulas, even if the integral symbols before the last one do not have bounds, so it's best to avoid backspacing "hacks" as they may be inconsistent with a possible future better implementation of integrals symbols (with more precisely computed kerning positions).
\oiint
and \oiiint
as PNG images
These symbols are available as PNG images which are also integrated into two templates, {{oiint}} and {{oiiint}}, which take care of the formatting around the symbols.
The templates have three parameters:
 preintegral
 the text or formula immediately before the integral
 intsubscpt
 the subscript below the integral
 integrand
 the text or formula immediately after the integral
Examples
 Stokes' theorem:
{{oiint  intsubscpt=<math>\scriptstyle S</math>  integrand=<math>( \nabla \times \mathbf{F} ) \cdot {\mathrm d}\mathbf{S} = \oint_{\partial S} \mathbf{F} \cdot {\mathrm d}\boldsymbol{\ell}</math>}}
 Ampère's law + correction:
{{oiint  preintegral=<math>\oint_C \mathbf{B} \cdot {\mathrm d} \boldsymbol{\ell} = \mu_0 </math>  intsubscpt = <math>{\scriptstyle S}</math>  integrand = <math>\left ( \mathbf{J} + \epsilon_0\frac{\partial \mathbf{E}}{\partial t} \right ) \cdot {\mathrm d}\mathbf{S}</math> }}
 Continuity of 4momentum flux (in general relativity):^{[3]}
{{oiiint  preintegral=<math>\mathbf{P} = </math>  intsubscpt=<math>\scriptstyle \partial \Omega</math>  integrand=<math>\mathbf{T} \cdot {\mathrm d}^3\boldsymbol{\Sigma}</math> <math>=0</math>}}
Oriented \oiint
and \oiiint
as PNG images
Some variants of \oiint
and \oiiint
have arrows on them to indicate the sense of integration, such as a line integral around a closed curve in the clockwise sense, and higher dimensional analogues. These are not implemented in TeX on Wikipedia either, although the template {{intorient}} is available  see link for details.
Arc notation \overarc
\overarc
is not yet implemented to display the arc notation. However, there exists a workaround: use \overset{\frown}{AB}
, which gives
For longer arcs, use {{Overarc}}:
3.142857
Triple dot \dddot
\dddot
is not implemented. For a workaround use \overset{...}{x}
, which gives
.
Starred operatorname \operatorname*
The starred version of \operatorname
is not currently supported. A workaround for
\operatorname*{median}_{j\,\ne\,i} X_{i,j}
is
\operatorname{\underset{\mathit{j\,\ne\,i}}{median}} X_{i,j}
Strikethrough
Strikethrough like \sout
or \st
is not implemented, nor is overlapping like \rlap
. This means struck characters like ƛ are difficult to type, except the hardcoded \hbar
. A workaround suffix for a normal strikethrough is q \!\!\!\frac{}{\ }
, and for elevated strikethrough is \lambda \!\!\!^{{}^\underline{\ \ }}
, which give
Formatting in \text
Formatting in \text
is not supported. In other words, you can't use:
\text{\textsf{textual description of a variable}}
but have to use:
\mathsf{textual\ description\ of\ a\ variable}
More specifically, in Mathoid's MathJax, no processing is done to the contents of \text
at all. The texvcjs component blocks the use of macros, but another way this behavior leaks through is in the processing of quotation marks, where the Unicode version must be used instead of `
:
\text{`failed ``ascii'' quotes'},\ \text{‘okay “unicode” quotes’}
It is currently impossible to get straight (typewriter) quotes in MathJax.
Automatic linebreaking
The current imagebased implementation precludes automatic linebreaking of inline formulae after binary operators and "=" as seen in TeX. The only workaround is to not write long formulae inline.
Readers wishing to enable automatic linebreaking can try to have the browser render the MathML itself or to use an alternate inbrowser renderer.
Syntax to avoid
Unicode characters
NonASCII Unicode characters like π work in MathML, and MathJax but not in texvc so should currently be avoided. In the long term it may become possible to use these characters.
Unicode is currently possible in \text{}
due to Wikipedia's switch to Mathoid (serverside MathJax in SVG/PNG mode). However, Unicode text in math mode is still unavailable due to texvcjs considering it invalid.
Deprecated syntax
The texvc processor accepted some nonstandard syntax. These should be avoided as the MathJax based renderers do not support these syntax.
The following texvc commands are now deprecated and should be avoided. This is part of an effort to update the math engine see mw:Extension:Math/Roadmap for details. A bot User:Texvc2LaTeXBot will replace this syntax on the English Wikipedia.
Current syntax  Suggested replacement  Comment 

$  \$  redefinition would involve changing the character code 
%  \%  redefinition would involve changing the character code 
\or  \lor  causes teubner to fail^{[4]} 
\and  \land  causes normal align environment to fail 
\pagecolor  remove  not needed and not working anymore, done manually 
\part  \partial  acceptable if the document doesn't use sectioning with \part . 
\ang  \angle  this only conflicts with siunitx package. 
\C  \Complex  conflicts with puenc.def e.g. from hyperref package 
\H  \mathbb{H}  conflicts with text command \H{0} which is ő. 
\bold  \mathbf  
\Bbb  \mathbb 
Chemistry
There are three ways to render chemical sum formulas as used in chemical equations:
<chem>...</chem>
(<ce>...</ce>
is a deprecated alias for it)<math chem>...</math>
{{chem}}
and{{chem2}}
<chem>X</chem>
is short for <math chem>\ce{X}</math>
(where X
is a chemical sum formula)
Technically, <math chem>
is a math
tag with the extension mhchem
enabled, according to the MathJax documentation.
Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Chemistry advises avoiding the <math>/<chem> markup method when possible.
Note, that the commands \cee
and \cf
are disabled, because they are marked as deprecated in the mhchem LaTeX package documentation.
If the formula reaches a certain "complexity", spaces might be ignored (<chem>A + B</chem>
might be rendered as if it were <chem>A+B</chem>
with a positive charge). In that case, write <chem>A{} + B</chem>
(and not <chem>{A} + {B}</chem>
as was previously suggested). This will allow autocleaning of formulas once the bug will be fixed and/or a newer mhchem
version will be used.
Please note that there are still major issues with mhchem support in MediaWiki. Some issues can be solved by enabling the extension using <math chem>
and formatting individual items with \ce
. For example,
<math chem>\ce{pIC_{50}} = \log_{10} \ce{(IC_{50})}</math>
Molecular and condensed formula
mhchem  {{chem}} 
{{chem2}} 
Equivalent HTML  





Bonds
mhchem  Equivalent {{chem}} and HTML 
{{chem2}}
 




Charges
mhchem  {{chem}} 
{{chem2}} 
Equivalent HTML  





Addition compounds and stoichiometric numbers
mhchem  {{chem}} 
{{chem2}}
 




Wiki linking
{{chem}}

 

{{chem2}}


(Italic) Math
mhchem 
 

{{chem}}


Oxidation states
mhchem 
 

{{chem}} with <sup>...</sup>

 
{{chem2}}


Greek characters
mhchem  Equivalent {{chem}} and HTML 
{{chem2}}
 




Isotopes
mhchem  Equivalent {{chem}} and HTML
 



States
States subscripting is not IUPAC recommendation.
mhchem  {{chem}}
 



Precipitate
mhchem 
 

{{chem}}

 
{{chem2}}

 
Equivalent HTML 

Reaction arrows
Markup  Renders as 

<chem>A >B</chem> 

<chem>A < B</chem> 

<chem>A <=> B</chem> 

<chem>A <=>> B</chem> 

<chem>A <<=> B</chem> 







Comparison of arrow symbols
Markup  Renders as 

<math>\rightarrow</math> 

<math>\rightleftarrows</math> 

<math>\rightleftharpoons</math> 

<math>\leftrightarrow</math> 

<math>\longrightarrow</math> <chem>></chem> 

<math>\rightleftharpoons</math> <chem><=></chem> 

<math>\longleftrightarrow</math> <chem><></chem> 

Further examples using ordinary LaTeX tags
<math chem>\begin{align}
\overbrace{\ce{2Fe3O4}}^{\text{magnetite}} + \ce{1/2 O2 >}\ &{\color{Brown}\overbrace{\ce{3(\lambda{}Fe2O3)}}^{\text{maghemite}}}\\
\underbrace{\ce{2Fe3O4}}_{\text{magnetite}} + \ce{1/2 O2 >}\ &{\color{Red}\underbrace{\ce{3(\alpha{}Fe2O3)}}_{\text{hematite}}}
\end{align}</math>
To align the equations or color them, use <math chem>
and \ce
.
Commutative diagrams
To make a commutative diagram, there are three steps:
 write the diagram in TeX
 convert to SVG
 upload the file to Wikimedia Commons
Diagrams in TeX
Xypic^{[a]} (online manual) is the most powerful and generalpurpose diagram package in TeX. Diagrams created using it can be found at Commons: Category:Xypic diagrams.
Simpler packages include:
The following is a template for Xypic:
\documentclass[border=10pt]{standalone} % Crop to size, remove page numbers, leave margin
\usepackage[all]{xy} % Loading the XYPic package
\begin{document}
\SelectTips{eu}{} % Euler (shorter) arrowheads (tips)
$$
\xymatrix{
%%% Diagram goes here %%%
}
$$
\end{document}
Using postscript drivers may in some cases give smoother curves and will handle fonts differently:
\usepackage[all, ps, dvips]{xy}
Convert to SVG
Once you have produced your diagram in LaTeX (or TeX), you can convert it to an SVG file using the following sequence of commands:
pdflatex file.tex
pdf2svg file.pdf file.svg
The pdfcrop and pdf2svg utilities are needed for this procedure. You can alternatively use pdf2svg from PDFTron for the last step.
If you do not have pdfTeX (which is unlikely) you can use the following commands to replace the first step (TeX → PDF):
latex file.tex
dvipdfm file.dvi
In general, you will not be able to get anywhere with diagrams without TeX and Ghostscript, and the inkscape
program is a useful tool for creating or modifying your diagrams by hand. There is also a utility pstoedit
which supports direct conversion from Postscript files to many vector graphics formats, but it requires a nonfree plugin to convert to SVG, and regardless of the format, this editor has not been successful in using it to convert diagrams with diagonal arrows from TeXcreated files.
These programs are:
 a working TeX distribution, such as TeX Live
 Ghostscript
 pstoedit
 Inkscape
Upload the file
As the diagram is your own work, upload it to Wikimedia Commons, so that all projects (notably, all languages) can use it without having to copy it to their language's Wiki. (If you've previously uploaded a file to somewhere other than Commons, to Commons.)
 Check size
 Before uploading, check that the default size of the image is neither too large nor too small by opening in an SVG application and viewing at default size (100% scaling), otherwise adjust the
y
option todvips
.  Name
 Make sure the file has a meaningful name.
 Upload
 Login to Wikimedia Commons, then upload the file; for the Summary, give a brief description.
Now go to the image page and add a description, including the source code, using this template:
{{Information description = {{en1= '''Description [[:en:Link to WP pagetopic]]'''}} source = {{own}}, created as per: [[:en:Help:Displaying a formula#Commutative diagrams]]; source code below. date = '''The Creation Date, like 19991231''' author = '''[[User:YourUserNameYour Real Name]]''' permission = {{selfPDself '''(or [[commons:Licensing#Wellknown licensesother license]])''' author = '''[[User:YourUserNameYour Real Name]]'''}} }} ==TeX source== <syntaxhighlight lang="latex"> % TeX source here </syntaxhighlight> [[Category:Commutative diagrams]] [[Category:Xypic diagrams]] [[Category:Images with LaTeX source code]]
 Source code

 Include the source code in the image page, in the Source section of the
{{Information}}
template, so that the diagram can be edited in future.  Include the complete
.tex
file, not just the fragment, so future editors do not need to reconstruct a compilable file.  You may optionally make the source code section collapsible, using the
{{cot}}
or{{cob}}
templates.  (Don't include it in the Summary section, which is just supposed to be a summary.)
 Include the source code in the image page, in the Source section of the
 License
 The most common license for commutative diagrams is
PDself
; some usePDineligible
, especially for simple diagrams, or other licenses. Please do not use the GFDL, as it requires the entire text of the GFDL to be attached to any document that uses the diagram.  Description
 If possible, link to a Wikipedia page relevant to the diagram. (The
1=
is necessary if you use nest templates within the description, and harmless otherwise.)  Category
 Include
[[Category:Commutative diagrams]]
, so that it appears in commons:Category:Commutative diagrams. There are also subcategories, which you may choose to use.  Include image
 Now include the image on the original page via
[[File:Diagram.svg]]
Examples
A sample conforming diagram is commons:File:PSUPU.svg.
Semantics and links
While links from formulas using LaTeX macros such as \href or \url or are currently not supported, one can link individual math expressions to wikidata items to explain the meaning of individual terms of mathematical expressions. For example,
Markup 

Renders as 
links to a special page that displays additional information on that formulas. To change the information shown on the specialpage navigate to the wikidata item linked at the bottom of the special page. Use the has part property to link parts of the equation to other wikidata items with their respective Wikipedia Articles. This is not limited to individual identifiers, but can also be used to link more complex terms.
A condensed version of that specialpage, might be shown in the future as popup phab:T239357.
Examples of implemented TeX formulas
Quadratic polynomial
Markup 

Renders as 
Quadratic formula
Markup 

Renders as 
Tall parentheses and fractions
Markup 

Renders as 
Markup 

Renders as 
Integrals
Markup 

Renders as 
Markup 

Renders as 
Matrices and determinants
Markup 

Renders as 
Summation
Markup 

Renders as 
Markup 

Renders as 
Differential equation
Markup 

Renders as 
Complex numbers
Markup 

Renders as 
Limits
Markup 

Renders as 
Integral equation
Markup 

Renders as 
Example
Markup 

Renders as 
Continuation and cases
Markup 

Renders as 
Prefixed subscript
Markup 

Renders as 
Fraction and small fraction
Markup 

Renders as 
Area of a quadrilateral
Markup 

Renders as 
Volume of a spherestand
Markup 

Renders as 
Multiple equations
The altered newline code \\[0.6ex]
below adds a vertical space between the two lines of length equal to times the height of a single 'x
' character.
Markup 

Renders as 
See also
 {{Math}}
 MathJax—Javascript library that converts LaTeX to MathML
 Typesetting of mathematical formulas
 Help:Score (a tag for tablatures, "sheet music") and Help:Musical symbols
 List of mathematical symbols
 WP:Rendering math
 blahtex: a LaTeX to MathML converter for Wikipedia
 commons:Category:Images which should use TeX
 Handwriting recognition, another way to put formulas, in a visual manner.
References
Footnotes
 ^ Use the barr option for commutative diagrams, e.g.,
\usepackage[cmtip,all,barr]{xy}
.
Citations
 ^ Ed Sanders (December 18, 2016). "Consider a longer, less ambiguous name for <ce>". Wikimedia Foundation. Retrieved April 24, 2017.
 ^ "HTML Living Standard". Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group (WHATWG).
 ^ J. A. Wheeler; C. Misner; K. S. Thorne (1973). Gravitation (2nd ed.). W. H. Freeman & Co. ISBN 0716703440.
 ^ https://tex.stackexchange.com/questions/418490
External links
 Task:Creating a visual VisualEditor plugin tool to add/edit maths blocks in Wikimedia Phabricator
 A LaTeX tutorial
 LaTex online editor
 Doob, Michael, A Gentle Introduction to TeX: A Manual for Selfstudy (PDF). A paper introducing TeX — see page 39 onwards for a good introduction to the maths side of things.
 Oetiker, Tobias; Partl, Hubert; Hyna, Irene; Schlegl, Elisabeth (December 13, 2009), The Not So Short Introduction to LaTeX 2_{ε} (PDF) (4.27 ed.). A paper introducing LaTeX — skip to page 49 for the math section. See page 63 for a complete reference list of symbols included in LaTeX and AMSLaTeX.
 The Comprehensive LaTeX Symbol List—symbols not found here may be documented there.
 The esint package for closed double integrals
 cancel package homepage and PDF documentation
 AMSLaTeX guide.
 A set of public domain fixedsize math symbol bitmaps.
 List of mathematical symbols with their Unicode characters and their LaTeX commands
 MathML: A product of the W3C Math working group, is a lowlevel specification for describing mathematics as a basis for machinetomachine communication
 HTML Math and the <MATH> tag, W3C.