|City of Austin|
Live Music Capital of the World, Silicon Hills, ATX, City of the Violet Crown
Keep Austin Weird (unofficial)
|Counties||Travis, Hays, Williamson|
|Incorporated||December 27, 1839|
|Named for||Stephen F. Austin|
|• Mayor||Steve Adler (D)[a]|
|• City Council|
|• City manager||Spencer Cronk|
|• State capital city||326.51 sq mi (845.66 km2)|
|• Land||319.94 sq mi (828.64 km2)|
|• Water||6.57 sq mi (17.02 km2)|
|• Metro||4,285.70 sq mi (11,099.91 km2)|
|Elevation||289–1,450 ft (88–405 m)|
|• State capital city||790,390|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||3,059.68/sq mi (1,181.35/km2)|
|• Metro||2,227,083 (29th)|
|Time zone||UTC−6 (CST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−5 (CDT)|
78701–78705, 78708–78739, 78741–78742, 78744–78769
|Area codes||512 & 737|
|GNIS feature ID||1384879|
|Primary Airport||Austin–Bergstrom International Airport|
|Commuter Rail||Capital MetroRail|
Austin (US: //, UK: / /,) is the capital city of the U.S. state of Texas, as well as the seat and largest city of Travis County, with portions extending into Hays and Williamson counties. Incorporated on December 27, 1839, it is the 11th-most populous city in the United States, the fourth-most-populous city in Texas, and the second-most-populous state capital city (after Phoenix, Arizona). It was also the fastest growing large city in the United States in 2015 and 2016. It is the southernmost state capital in the contiguous United States and is considered a "Beta −" global city as categorized by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network.
As of the U.S. Census Bureau's July 1, 2019 estimate, Austin had a population of 978,908, up from 790,491 at the 2010 census. The city is the cultural and economic center of the Austin–Round Rock metropolitan statistical area, which had an estimated population of 2,227,083 as of July 1, 2019, nearly an 80% increase from the year 2000. Located in Central Texas within the greater Texas Hill Country, it is home to numerous lakes, rivers, and waterways, including Lady Bird Lake and Lake Travis on the Colorado River, Barton Springs, McKinney Falls, and Lake Walter E. Long.
Residents of Austin are known as Austinites. They include a diverse mix of government employees, college students, musicians, high-tech workers, and blue-collar workers. The city's official slogan promotes Austin as "The Live Music Capital of the World", a reference to the city's many musicians and live music venues, as well as the long-running PBS TV concert series Austin City Limits. The city also adopted "Silicon Hills" as a nickname in the 1990s due to a rapid influx of technology and development companies. In recent years, some Austinites have adopted the unofficial slogan "Keep Austin Weird", which refers to the desire to protect small, unique, and local businesses from being overrun by large corporations. Since the late 19th century, Austin has also been known as the "City of the Violet Crown", because of the colorful glow of light across the hills just after sunset.
In 1987 Austin originated and remains the site for South by Southwest (stylized as SXSW and colloquially referred to as South By), an annual conglomeration of parallel film, interactive media, and music festivals and conferences that take place in mid-March.
Emerging from a strong economic focus on government and education, since the 1990s Austin has become a center for technology and business. A number of Fortune 500 companies have headquarters or regional offices in Austin, including 3M, Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), Amazon, Apple, Facebook,NXP semiconductors,Google, IBM, Intel, Oracle, Texas Instruments, and Whole Foods Market. Dell's worldwide headquarters is located in the nearby suburb of Round Rock. With regard to education, Austin is the home of the University of Texas at Austin, which is one of the largest universities in the U.S. and is attended by over 50,000 students.
Austin, Travis County and Williamson County have been the site of human habitation since at least 9200 BC. The area's earliest known inhabitants lived during the late Pleistocene (Ice Age) and are linked to the Clovis culture around 9200 BC (over 11,200 years ago), based on evidence found throughout the area and documented at the much-studied Gault Site, midway between Georgetown and Fort Hood.[failed verification]
When settlers arrived from Europe, the Tonkawa tribe inhabited the area. The Comanches and Lipan Apaches were also known to travel through the area. Spanish colonists, including the Espinosa-Olivares-Aguirre expedition, traveled through the area, though few permanent settlements were created for some time. In 1730, three missions from East Texas were combined and reestablished as one mission on the south side of the Colorado River, in what is now Zilker Park, in Austin. The mission was in this area for only about seven months, and then was moved to San Antonio de Béxar and split into three missions.
During the 1830s, pioneers began to settle the area in central Austin along the Colorado River. Spanish forts were established in what are now Bastrop and San Marcos. Following Mexico's independence, new settlements were established in Central Texas, but growth in the region was stagnant because of conflicts with the regional Native Americans.
In 1835–1836, Texans fought and won independence from Mexico. Texas thus became an independent country with its own president, congress, and monetary system. After Vice President Mirabeau B. Lamar visited the area during a buffalo-hunting expedition between 1837 and 1838, he proposed that the republic's capital, then in Houston, be relocated to the area situated on the north bank of the Colorado River (near the present-day Congress Avenue Bridge). In 1839, the site was chosen to replace Houston as the capital of the Republic of Texas and was incorporated under the name "Waterloo". Shortly afterward, the name was changed to Austin in honor of Stephen F. Austin, the "Father of Texas" and the republic's first secretary of state. The city grew throughout the 19th century and became a center for government and education with the construction of the Texas State Capitol and the University of Texas at Austin. After a severe lull in economic growth from the Great Depression, Austin resumed its steady development.
In 1839, the Texas Congress formed a commission to seek a site for a new capital to be named for Stephen F. Austin. Mirabeau B. Lamar, second president of the newly formed Republic of Texas, advised the commissioners to investigate the area named Waterloo, noting the area's hills, waterways, and pleasant surroundings. Waterloo was selected, and "Austin" was chosen as the town's new name. The location was seen as a convenient crossroads for trade routes between Santa Fe and Galveston Bay, as well as routes between northern Mexico and the Red River.
Edwin Waller was picked by Lamar to survey the village and draft a plan laying out the new capital. The original site was narrowed to 640 acres (260 ha) that fronted the Colorado River between two creeks, Shoal Creek and Waller Creek, which was later named in his honor. Waller and a team of surveyors developed Austin's first city plan, commonly known as the Waller Plan, dividing the site into a 14-block grid plan bisected by a broad north–south thoroughfare, Congress Avenue, running up from the river to Capital Square, where the new Texas State Capitol was to be constructed. A temporary one-story capitol was erected on the corner of Colorado and 8th Streets. On August 1, 1839, the first auction of 217 out of 306 lots total was held. The Waller Plan designed and surveyed now forms the basis of downtown Austin.
In 1840, a series of conflicts between the Texas Rangers and the Comanches, known as the Council House Fight and the Battle of Plum Creek, pushed the Comanches westward, mostly ending conflicts in Central Texas. Settlement in the area began to expand quickly. Travis County was established in 1840, and the surrounding counties were mostly established within the next two decades.
Initially, the new capital thrived but Lamar's political enemy, Sam Houston, used two Mexican army incursions to San Antonio as an excuse to move the government. Sam Houston fought bitterly against Lamar's decision to establish the capital in such a remote wilderness. The men and women who traveled mainly from Houston to conduct government business were intensely disappointed as well. By 1840, the population had risen to 856, of whom nearly half fled from Austin when Congress recessed. The resident African American population listed in January of this same year was 176. The fear of Austin's proximity to the Indians and Mexico, which still considered Texas a part of their land, created an immense motive for Sam Houston, the first and third President of the Republic of Texas, to relocate the capital once again in 1841. Upon threats of Mexican troops in Texas, Houston raided the Land Office to transfer all official documents to Houston for safe keeping in what was later known as the Archive War, but the people of Austin would not allow this unaccompanied decision to be executed. The documents stayed, but the capital would temporarily move from Austin to Houston to Washington-on-the-Brazos. Without the governmental body, Austin's population declined to a low of only a few hundred people throughout the early 1840s. The voting by the fourth President of the Republic, Anson Jones, and Congress, who reconvened in Austin in 1845, settled the issue to keep Austin the seat of government, as well as annex the Republic of Texas into the United States.
In 1860, 38% of Travis County residents were slaves. In 1861, with the outbreak of the American Civil War, voters in Austin and other Central Texas communities voted against secession. However, as the war progressed and fears of attack by Union forces increased, Austin contributed hundreds of men to the Confederate forces. The African American population of Austin swelled dramatically after the enforcement of the Emancipation Proclamation in Texas by Union General Gordon Granger at Galveston, in an event commemorated as Juneteenth. Black communities such as Wheatville, Pleasant Hill, and Clarksville were established, with Clarksville being the oldest surviving freedomtown ‒ the original post-Civil War settlements founded by former African-American slaves ‒ west of the Mississippi River. In 1870, blacks made up 36.5% of Austin's population.
The postwar period saw dramatic population and economic growth. The opening of the Houston and Texas Central Railway (H&TC) in 1871 turned Austin into the major trading center for the region, with the ability to transport both cotton and cattle. The Missouri, Kansas & Texas (MKT) line followed close behind. Austin was also the terminus of the southernmost leg of the Chisholm Trail, and "drovers" pushed cattle north to the railroad. Cotton was one of the few crops produced locally for export, and a cotton gin engine was located downtown near the trains for "ginning" cotton of its seeds and turning the product into bales for shipment. However, as other new railroads were built through the region in the 1870s, Austin began to lose its primacy in trade to the surrounding communities. In addition, the areas east of Austin took over cattle and cotton production from Austin, especially in towns like Hutto and Taylor that sit over the blackland prairie, with its deep, rich soils for producing cotton and hay.
In September 1881, Austin public schools held their first classes. The same year, Tillotson Collegiate and Normal Institute (now part of Huston–Tillotson University) opened its doors. The University of Texas held its first classes in 1883, although classes had been held in the original wooden state capitol for four years before.
During the 1880s, Austin gained new prominence as the state capitol building was completed in 1888 and claimed as the seventh largest building in the world. In the late 19th century, Austin expanded its city limits to more than three times its former area, and the first granite dam was built on the Colorado River to power a new street car line and the new "moon towers". The first dam washed away in a flood on April 7, 1900.
In the late 1920s and 1930s, Austin implemented the 1928 Austin city plan through a series of civic development and beautification projects that created much of the city's infrastructure and many of its parks. In addition, the state legislature established the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA) that, along with the city of Austin, created the system of dams along the Colorado River to form the Highland Lakes. These projects were enabled in large part because the Public Works Administration provided Austin with greater funding for municipal construction projects than other Texas cities.
During the early twentieth century, a three-way system of social segregation emerged in Austin, with Anglos, African Americans and Mexicans being separated by custom or law in most aspects of life, including housing, health care, and education. Many of the municipal improvement programs initiated during this period—such as the construction of new roads, schools, and hospitals—were deliberately designed to institutionalize this system of segregation. Deed restrictions also played an important role in residential segregation. After 1935 most housing deeds prohibited African Americans (and sometimes other nonwhite groups) from using land. Combined with the system of segregated public services, racial segregation increased in Austin during the first half of the twentieth century, with African Americans and Mexicans experiencing high levels of discrimination and social marginalization.
In 1940, the destroyed granite dam on the Colorado River was finally replaced by a hollow concrete dam that formed Lake McDonald (now called Lake Austin) and which has withstood all floods since. In addition, the much larger Mansfield Dam was built by the LCRA upstream of Austin to form Lake Travis, a flood-control reservoir. In the early 20th century, the Texas Oil Boom took hold, creating tremendous economic opportunities in Southeast Texas and North Texas. The growth generated by this boom largely passed by Austin at first, with the city slipping from fourth largest to 10th largest in Texas between 1880 and 1920.
After the mid-20th century, Austin became established as one of Texas' major metropolitan centers. In 1970, the U.S. Census Bureau reported Austin's population as 14.5% Hispanic, 11.9% black, and 73.4% non-Hispanic white. In the late 20th century, Austin emerged as an important high tech center for semiconductors and software. The University of Texas at Austin emerged as a major university.
The 1970s saw Austin's emergence in the national music scene, with local artists such as Willie Nelson, Asleep at the Wheel, and Stevie Ray Vaughan and iconic music venues such as the Armadillo World Headquarters. Over time, the long-running television program Austin City Limits, its namesake Austin City Limits Festival, and the South by Southwest music festival solidified the city's place in the music industry.
Austin, the southernmost state capital of the contiguous 48 states, is located in Central Texas. Austin is 146 miles (230 km) northwest of Houston, 182 miles (290 km) south of Dallas and 74 miles (120 km) northeast of San Antonio.
In 2010, the city occupied a total area of 305.1 square miles (790.1 km2). Approximately 7.2 square miles (18.6 km2) of this area is water. Austin is situated at the foot of the Balcones Escarpment, on the Colorado River, with three artificial lakes within the city limits: Lady Bird Lake (formerly known as Town Lake), Lake Austin (both created by dams along the Colorado River), and Lake Walter E. Long that is partly used for cooling water for the Decker Power Plant. Mansfield Dam and the foot of Lake Travis are located within the city's limits. Lady Bird Lake, Lake Austin, and Lake Travis are each on the Colorado River.
The elevation of Austin varies from 425 feet (130 m) to approximately 1,000 feet (305 m) above sea level. Due to the fact it straddles the Balcones Fault, much of the eastern part of the city is flat, with heavy clay and loam soils, whereas the western part and western suburbs consist of rolling hills on the edge of the Texas Hill Country. Because the hills to the west are primarily limestone rock with a thin covering of topsoil, portions of the city are frequently subjected to flash floods from the runoff caused by thunderstorms. To help control this runoff and to generate hydroelectric power, the Lower Colorado River Authority operates a series of dams that form the Texas Highland Lakes. The lakes also provide venues for boating, swimming, and other forms of recreation within several parks on the lake shores.
Austin is located at the intersection of four major ecological regions, and is consequently a temperate-to-hot green oasis with a highly variable climate having some characteristics of the desert, the tropics, and a wetter climate. The area is very diverse ecologically and biologically, and is home to a variety of animals and plants. Notably, the area is home to many types of wildflowers that blossom throughout the year but especially in the spring. This includes the popular bluebonnets, some planted by "Lady Bird" Johnson, wife of former President Lyndon B. Johnson.
The soils of Austin range from shallow, gravelly clay loams over limestone in the western outskirts to deep, fine sandy loams, silty clay loams, silty clays or clays in the city's eastern part. Some of the clays have pronounced shrink-swell properties and are difficult to work under most moisture conditions. Many of Austin's soils, especially the clay-rich types, are slightly to moderately alkaline and have free calcium carbonate.
Austin's skyline historically was modest, dominated by the Texas State Capitol and the University of Texas Main Building. However, since the 2000s, many new high-rise towers have been constructed. Austin is currently undergoing a skyscraper boom, which includes recent construction on new office, hotel and residential buildings. Downtown's buildings are somewhat spread out, partly due to a set of zoning restrictions that preserve the view of the Texas State Capitol from various locations around Austin, known as the Capitol View Corridors.
At night, parts of Austin are lit by "artificial moonlight" from moonlight towers built to illuminate the central part of the city. The 165-foot (50 m) moonlight towers were built in the late 19th century and are now recognized as historic landmarks. Only 15 of the 31 original innovative towers remain standing in Austin, but none remain in any of the other cities where they were installed. The towers are featured in the 1993 film Dazed and Confused.
The central business district of Austin is home to the tallest condo towers in the state, with The Independent (58 stories and 690 feet (210 metres) tall) and The Austonian (topping out at 56 floors and 685 feet (209 metres) tall). The Independent became the tallest all-residential building in the U.S. west of Chicago when topped out in 2018. In 2005, then-Mayor Will Wynn set out a goal of having 25,000 people living downtown by 2015. Although downtown's growth did not meet this goal, downtown's residential population did surge from an estimated 5,000 in 2005 to 12,000 in 2015. The skyline has drastically changed in recent years, and the residential real estate market has remained relatively strong. As of December 2016, there were 31 high-rise projects either under construction, approved or planned to be completed in Austin's downtown core between 2017 and 2020. Sixteen of those were set to rise above 400 feet (120 metres) tall, including four above 600', and eight above 500'. An additional 15 towers were slated to stand between 300' and 399' tall.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Austin is located within the middle of a unique, narrow transitional zone between the dry deserts of the American Southwest and the lush, green, more humid regions of the American Southeast. Its climate, topography, and vegetation share characteristics of both. Officially, Austin has a humid subtropical climate under the Köppen climate classification. This climate is typified by very long and hot summers, short and mild winters, and pleasantly warm spring and fall seasons in-between. Austin averages 34.32 inches (872 mm) of annual rainfall and it is distributed mostly evenly throughout the year, though spring and fall are the wettest seasons. Sunshine is common during all seasons, with 2,650 hours, or 60.3% of the possible total, of bright sunshine per year. Austin falls in USDA hardiness zones 8b (15 °F to 20 °F) and 9a (20 °F to 25 °F).
Summers in Austin are very hot, with average July and August highs frequently reaching the high-90s (34–36 °C) or above. Highs reach 90 °F (32 °C) on 116 days per year, of which 18 days reach 100 °F (38 °C). The average daytime high is 70 °F (21 °C) or warmer between March 6 and November 20, rising to 80 °F (27 °C) or warmer between April 14 and October 24, and reaching 90 °F (32 °C) or warmer between May 30 and September 18. The highest ever recorded temperature was 112 °F (44 °C) occurring on September 5, 2000, and August 28, 2011. An uncommon characteristic of Austin's climate is its highly variable humidity, which fluctuates frequently depending on the shifting patterns of air flow and wind direction. It is common for a lengthy series of warm, dry, low-humidity days to be occasionally interrupted by very warm and humid days, and vice versa. Humidity rises with winds from the east or southeast, when the air drifts inland from the Gulf of Mexico, but decreases significantly with winds from the west or southwest, bringing air flowing from Chihuahuan Desert areas of West Texas or northern Mexico.
Winters in Austin are mild with cool nights, although occasional short-lived bursts of cold weather known as "Blue Northers" can occur. January is the coolest month with an average daytime high of 61 °F (16 °C). The overnight low drops to or below freezing 19 times per year, and sinks below 45 °F (7 °C) during 88 evenings per year, including most nights between mid-December and mid-February. Lows in the upper 30s also occur commonly during the winter. Conversely, winter months are also capable of occasionally producing warm days. On average, eight days in January reach or exceed 70 °F (21 °C) and one day reaches 80 °F (27 °C). The lowest ever recorded temperature in the city was −2 °F (−19 °C) on January 31, 1949. Roughly every two years Austin experiences an ice storm that freezes roads over and cripples travel in the city for 24 to 48 hours. When Austin received 0.04 inches (1 mm) of ice on January 24, 2014, there were 278 vehicular collisions. Similarly, snowfall is rare in Austin. A snow event of 0.9 inches (2 cm) on February 4, 2011, caused more than 300 car crashes. The most recent major snow event occurred the week of February 14, 2021, when as many as 7.5 inches were recorded in parts of Travis County. 
Typical of Central Texas, severe weather in Austin is a threat that can strike during any season. However, it is most common during the spring. According to most classifications, Austin lies within the extreme southern periphery of Tornado Alley, although many sources place Austin outside of Tornado Alley altogether. Consequently, tornadoes strike Austin less frequently than areas farther to the north. However, severe weather and/or supercell thunderstorms can occur multiple times per year, bringing damaging winds, lightning, heavy rain, and occasional flash flooding to the city. The deadliest storm to ever strike city limits was the twin tornadoes storm of May 4, 1922, while the deadliest tornado outbreak to ever strike the metro area was the Central Texas tornado outbreak of May 27, 1997.
|Climate data for Camp Mabry, Austin, Texas (1981–2010 normals,[b] extremes 1891–present)[c]|
|Record high °F (°C)||90
|Mean maximum °F (°C)||79.3
|Average high °F (°C)||61.5
|Average low °F (°C)||41.5
|Mean minimum °F (°C)||26.7
|Record low °F (°C)||−2
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||2.22
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||0.4
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||7.4||7.4||9.2||7.1||8.9||7.7||5.4||4.9||6.7||7.5||7.5||7.8||87.5|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||0.3||0.2||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0.5|
|Average relative humidity (%)||67.2||66.0||64.2||66.4||71.4||69.5||65.1||63.8||68.4||67.1||68.7||67.6||67.1|
|Average dew point °F (°C)||36.1
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||163.8||169.3||205.9||205.8||227.1||285.5||317.2||297.9||233.8||215.6||168.3||153.5||2,643.7|
|Percent possible sunshine||51||54||55||53||54||68||74||73||63||61||53||48||60|
|Average ultraviolet index||4||6||8||9||10||11||11||10||9||7||5||4||8|
|Source 1: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990), Weather.com |
|Source 2: Weather Atlas  (UV index)|
From October 2010 through September 2011, both major reporting stations in Austin, Camp Mabry and Bergstrom Int'l, had the least rainfall of a water year on record, receiving less than a third of normal precipitation. This was a result of La Niña conditions in the eastern Pacific Ocean where water was significantly cooler than normal. David Brown, a regional official with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, explained that "these kinds of droughts will have effects that are even more extreme in the future, given a warming and drying regional climate."
2018 flooding and water crisis
In Fall 2018, Austin and surrounding areas received heavy rainfall and flash flooding following Hurricane Sergio. The Lower Colorado River Authority opened four floodgates of the Mansfield Dam after Lake Travis was recorded at 146% full at 704.3 feet. From the 22nd to the 29th of October 2018 the City of Austin issued a mandatory citywide boil-water advisory after the Highland Lakes, home to the city's main water supply, became overwhelmed by unprecedented amounts of silt, dirt, and debris that washed in from the Llano River. Austin Water, the city's water utility, has the capacity to process up to 300 million gallons of water per day, but the elevated level of turbidity reduced output to only 105 million gallons per day since Austin residents consumed an average of 120 million gallons of water per day, so the infrastructure was not able to keep up with demand.
|U.S. Decennial Census|
|Black or African American||8.1%||12.4%||11.8%||13.3%|
|Hispanic or Latino (of any race)||35.1%||23.0%||14.5%||n/a|
According to the 2010 United States Census, the racial composition of Austin was 68.3% White (48.7% non-Hispanic whites), 35.1% Hispanic or Latino (29.1% Mexican, 0.5% Puerto Rican, 0.4% Cuban, 5.1% Other), 8.1% African American, 6.3% Asian (1.9% Indian, 1.5% Chinese, 1.0% Vietnamese, 0.7% Korean, 0.3% Filipino, 0.2% Japanese, 0.8% Other), 0.9% American Indian, 0.1% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, and 3.4% two or more races.
At the 2000 United States Census, there were 656,562 people, 265,649 households, and 141,590 families residing in the city (roughly comparable in size to San Francisco, Leeds, UK; and Ottawa, Ontario, Canada). The population density was 2,610.4 inhabitants per square mile (1,007.9/km2). There were 276,842 housing units at an average density of 1,100.7 per square mile (425.0/km2). There were 265,648 households, out of which 26.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.1% were married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 46.7% were non-families. 32.8% of all households were made up of individuals, and 4.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 3.14.
In the city, the population was spread out, with 22.5% under the age of 18, 16.6% from 18 to 24, 37.1% from 25 to 44, 17.1% from 45 to 64, and 6.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 105.8 males.
The median income for a household in the city was US$42,689, and the median income for a family was $54,091. Males had a median income of $35,545 vs. $30,046 for females. The per capita income for the city was $24,163. About 9.1% of families and 14.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.5% of those under age 18 and 8.7% of those age 65 or over. The median house price was $185,906 in 2009, and it has increased every year since 2004.[needs update] The median value of a house in which the owner occupies it was $227,800 in 2014, which is higher than the average American home value of $175,700.
A 2014 University of Texas study stated that Austin was the only U.S. city with a fast growth rate between 2000 and 2010 with a net loss in African Americans. As of 2014, Austin's African American and non-Hispanic white percentage share of the total population is declining despite the actual number of both ethnic groups increasing. Austin's non-Hispanic white population first dropped below 50% in 2005. The rapid growth of the Latino or Hispanic and Asian populations have outpaced all other ethnic groups in the city.
According to a survey completed in 2014 by Gallup, it is estimated that 5.3% of residents in the Austin metropolitan area identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender. The Austin metropolitan area had the third-highest rate in the nation.
According to Sperling's BestPlaces, 52.4% of Austin's population are religious. The majority of Austinites identified themselves as Christians, about 25.2% of whom claimed affiliation with the Catholic Church, owing in part to Spanish colonialism in the region. The city's Catholic population is served by the Roman Catholic Diocese of Austin, headquartered at the Cathedral of Saint Mary. Nationwide, 23% of Americans identified as Catholic in 2016. Other significant Christian groups in Austin include Baptists (8.7%), followed by Methodists (4.3%), Latter-Day Saints (1.5%), Episcopalians or Anglicans (1.0%), Lutherans (0.8%), Presbyterians (0.6%), Pentecostals (0.3%), and other Christians such as the Disciples of Christ and Eastern Orthodox Church (7.1%). The second largest religion Austinites identify with is Islam (1.7%); roughly 0.8% of Americans nationwide claimed affiliation with the Islamic faith. The dominant branch of Islam is Sunni Islam. Established in 1977, the largest mosque in Austin is the Islamic Center of Greater Austin. The community is affiliated with the Islamic Society of North America. The same study says that eastern faiths including Buddhism, Sikhism, and Hinduism made up 0.9% of the city's religious population. Several Hindu temples exist in the Austin Metropolitan area with the most notable one being Radha Madhav Dham. Judaism forms less than 0.1% of the religious demographic in Austin, although Orthodox, Reform, and Conservative congregations exist. In addition to those religious groups, Austin is also home to an active secular humanist community, hosting nationwide television shows and charity work.
As of 2019, there were 2,255 individuals experiencing homelessness in Travis County. Of those, 1,169 were sheltered and 1,086 were unsheltered. In September 2019, the Austin City Council approved $62.7 million for programs aimed at homelessness, which includes housing displacement prevention, crisis mitigation, and affordable housing; the city council also earmarked $500,000 for crisis services and encampment cleanups.
In June 2019, following a federal court ruling on homelessness sleeping in public, the Austin City Council lifted a 25-year-old ban on camping, sitting, or lying down in public unless doing so causes an obstruction. The resolution also included the approval of a new housing-focused shelter in South Austin. In early October 2019, Texas Governor Greg Abbott sent a letter to Mayor Steve Adler threatening to deploy state resources to combat the camping ban repeal. On October 17, 2019, the City Council revised the camping ordinance, which imposed increased restrictions on sidewalk camping. In November 2019, the State of Texas opened a temporary homeless encampment on a former vehicle storage yard owned by the Texas Department of Transportation.
The Greater Austin metropolitan statistical area had a gross domestic product (GDP) of $86 billion in 2010. Austin is considered to be a major center for high tech. Thousands of graduates each year from the engineering and computer science programs at the University of Texas at Austin provide a steady source of employees that help to fuel Austin's technology and defense industry sectors. The region's rapid growth has led Forbes to rank the Austin metropolitan area number one among all big cities for jobs for 2012 in their annual survey and WSJ Marketwatch to rank the area number one for growing businesses. By 2013, Austin was ranked No. 14 on Forbes' list of the Best Places for Business and Careers (directly below Dallas, No. 13 on the list). As a result of the high concentration of high-tech companies in the region, Austin was strongly affected by the dot-com boom in the late 1990s and subsequent bust. Austin's largest employers include the Austin Independent School District, the City of Austin, Dell, the U.S. Federal Government, NXP Semiconductors, IBM, St. David's Healthcare Partnership, Seton Family of Hospitals, the State of Texas, the Texas State University, and the University of Texas at Austin.
Other high-tech companies with operations in Austin include 3M, Apple, Amazon, AMD, Apartment Ratings, Applied Materials, Arm Holdings, Bigcommerce, BioWare, Blizzard Entertainment, Buffalo Technology, Cirrus Logic, Cisco Systems, Dropbox, eBay, Electronic Arts, Flextronics, Facebook, Google, Hewlett-Packard, Hoover's, HomeAway, HostGator, Intel Corporation, National Instruments, Nintendo, Nvidia, Oracle, PayPal, Polycom, Qualcomm, Rackspace, RetailMeNot, Rooster Teeth, Samsung Group, Silicon Laboratories, Spansion, United Devices, VMware, and Xerox. In 2010, Facebook accepted a grant to build a downtown office that could bring as many as 200 jobs to the city. The proliferation of technology companies has led to the region's nickname, "Silicon Hills", and spurred development that greatly expanded the city.
Austin is also emerging as a hub for pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies; the city is home to about 85 of them. In 2004, the city was ranked by the Milken Institute as the #12 biotech and life science center in the United States and in 2018, CBRE Group ranked Austin as #3 emerging life sciences cluster Companies such as Hospira, Pharmaceutical Product Development, and ArthroCare Corporation are located there.
Other companies based in Austin include NXP Semiconductors, GoodPop, Temple-Inland, Sweet Leaf Tea Company, Keller Williams Realty, National Western Life, GSD&M, Dimensional Fund Advisors, Golfsmith, Forestar Group, EZCorp, Outdoor Voices, Tito's Vodka, Indeed, Speak Social, and YETI.
In 2018, Austin metro-area companies saw a total of $1.33 billion invested. Austin's VC numbers were so strong in 2018 that they accounted for more than 60 percent of Texas' total investments.
Culture and contemporary life
"Keep Austin Weird" has been a local motto for years, featured on bumper stickers and T-shirts. This motto has not only been used in promoting Austin's eccentricity and diversity, but is also meant to bolster support of local independent businesses. According to the 2010 book Weird City the phrase was begun by a local Austin Community College librarian, Red Wassenich, and his wife, Karen Pavelka, who were concerned about Austin's "rapid descent into commercialism and overdevelopment." The slogan has been interpreted many ways since its inception, but remains an important symbol for many Austinites who wish to voice concerns over rapid growth and irresponsible development. Austin has a long history of vocal citizen resistance to development projects perceived to degrade the environment, or to threaten the natural and cultural landscapes.
According to the Nielsen Company, adults in Austin read and contribute to blogs more than those in any other U.S. metropolitan area. Austin residents have the highest Internet usage in all of Texas. In 2013, Austin was the most active city on Reddit, having the largest number of views per capita. Austin was selected as the No. 2 Best Big City in "Best Places to Live" by Money magazine in 2006, and No. 3 in 2009, and also the "Greenest City in America" by MSN.
South Congress is a shopping district stretching down South Congress Avenue from Downtown. This area is home to coffee shops, eccentric stores, restaurants, food trucks, trailers, and festivals. It prides itself on "Keeping Austin Weird," especially with development in the surrounding area(s). Many Austinites attribute its enduring popularity to the magnificent and unobstructed view of the Texas State Capitol.
The Rainey Street Historic District is a neighborhood in Downtown Austin consisting mostly of bungalow style homes built in the early 20th century. Since the early 2010s, the former working class residential street has turned into a popular nightlife district. Much of the historic homes have been renovated into bars and restaurants, many of which feature large porches and outdoor yards for patrons. The Rainey Street district is also home to the Emma S. Barrientos Mexican American Cultural Center.
"Old Austin" is an adage often used by the native citizens in Austin, Texas when being nostalgic to refer to the olden days of the capital city of Texas. Although Austin is also known internationally as the live music capital of the world and its catch phrase/slogan Keep Austin Weird can be heard echoed in places as far as Buffalo, New York and Santa Monica, California - the term Old Austin refers to a time when the city was smaller and more bohemian with a considerably lower cost of living and better known for its lack of traffic, hipsters, and urban sprawl. It is often employed by longtime residents expressing displeasure at the rapidly changing culture, or when referencing nostalgia of Austin culture.
The growth and popularity of Austin can be seen by the expansive development taking place in its downtown landscape. Forbes ranked Austin as the second fastest-growing city in 2015. This growth can have a negative impact on longtime small businesses that cannot keep up with the expenses associated with gentrification and the rising cost of real estate. A former Austin Musician, Dale Watson, described his move away from Austin, "I just really feel the city has sold itself. Just because you're going to get $45 million for a company to come to town – if it's not in the best interest of the town, I don't think they should do it. This city was never about money. It was about quality of life."
Annual cultural events
Other annual events include Eeyore's Birthday Party, Spamarama, Austin Pride Festival & Parade in August, the Austin Reggae Festival in April, Kite Festival, Texas Craft Brewers Festival in September, Art City Austin in April, East Austin Studio Tour in November, and Carnaval Brasileiro in February. Sixth Street features annual festivals such as the Pecan Street Festival and Halloween night. The three-day Austin City Limits Music Festival has been held in Zilker Park every year since 2002. Every year around the end of March and the beginning of April, Austin is home to "Texas Relay Weekend."
Austin's Zilker Park Tree is a Christmas display made of lights strung from the top of a Moonlight tower in Zilker Park. The Zilker Tree is lit in December along with the "Trail of Lights," an Austin Christmas tradition. The Trail of Lights was canceled four times, first starting in 2001 and 2002 due to the September 11 Attacks, and again in 2010 and 2011 due to budget shortfalls, but the trail was turned back on for the 2012 holiday season.
Cuisine and breweries
Austin is perhaps best known for its Texas barbecue and Tex-Mex cuisine. Franklin Barbecue is perhaps Austin's most famous barbecue restaurant; the restaurant has sold out of brisket every day since its establishment. Breakfast tacos and queso are popular food items in the city; Austin is sometimes called the "home of the breakfast taco." Kolaches are a common pastry in Austin bakeries due to the large Czech and German immigrant population in Texas. The Oasis Restaurant is the largest outdoor restaurant in Texas, which promotes itself as the "Sunset Capital of Texas" with its terraced views looking West over Lake Travis. P. Terry's, an Austin-based fast food burger chain, has a loyal following among Austinites. Some other Austin-based chain restaurants include Amy's Ice Creams, Bush's Chicken, Chuy's, DoubleDave's Pizzaworks, and Schlotzky's.
Austin is also home to a large number of food trucks, with 1,256 food trucks operating in 2016. The city of Austin has the second-largest number of food trucks per capita in the United States. Austin's first food hall, "Fareground," features a number of Austin-based food vendors and a bar in the ground level and courtyard of One Congress Plaza.
Austin has a large craft beer scene, with over 50 microbreweries in the metro area. Drinks publication VinePair named Austin as the "top beer destination in the world" in 2019. Notable Austin-area breweries include Jester King Brewery, Live Oak Brewing Company, and Real Ale Brewing Company.
As Austin's official slogan is The Live Music Capital of the World, the city has a vibrant live music scene with more music venues per capita than any other U.S. city. Austin's music revolves around the many nightclubs on 6th Street and an annual film/music/interactive festival known as South by Southwest (SXSW). The concentration of restaurants, bars, and music venues in the city's downtown core is a major contributor to Austin's live music scene, as the ZIP Code encompassing the downtown entertainment district hosts the most bar or alcohol-serving establishments in the U.S.
The longest-running concert music program on American television, Austin City Limits, is recorded at ACL Live at The Moody Theater, located in the bottom floor of the 478 feet (146 m) W Hotels in Austin. Austin City Limits and C3 Presents produce the Austin City Limits Music Festival, an annual music and art festival held at Zilker Park in Austin. Other music events include the Urban Music Festival, Fun Fun Fun Fest, Chaos In Tejas and Old Settler's Music Festival. Austin Lyric Opera performs multiple operas each year (including the 2007 opening of Philip Glass's Waiting for the Barbarians, written by University of Texas at Austin alumnus J. M. Coetzee). The Austin Symphony Orchestra performs a range of classical, pop and family performances and is led by Music Director and Conductor Peter Bay. The Austin Baroque Orchestra and La Follia Austin Baroque ensembles both give historically-informed performances of Baroque music.
Austin hosts several film festivals, including the SXSW (South by Southwest) Film Festival and the Austin Film Festival, which hosts international films. A movie theater chain by the name of Alamo Drafthouse Cinema was founded in Austin in 1997; the South Lamar location of which is home to the annual week-long Fantastic Fest film festival. In 2004 the city was first in MovieMaker Magazine's annual top ten cities to live and make movies.
Austin has been the location for a number of motion pictures, partly due to the influence of The University of Texas at Austin Department of Radio-Television-Film. Films produced in Austin include The Texas Chain Saw Massacre (1974), Songwriter (1984), Man of the House, Secondhand Lions, Texas Chainsaw Massacre 2, Nadine, Waking Life, Spy Kids, The Faculty, Dazed and Confused, The Guards Themselves, Wild Texas Wind, Office Space, The Life of David Gale, Miss Congeniality, Doubting Thomas, Slacker, Idiocracy, The New Guy, Hope Floats, The Alamo, Blank Check, The Wendall Baker Story, School of Rock, A Slipping-Down Life, A Scanner Darkly, Saturday Morning Massacre, and most recently, the Coen brothers' True Grit, Grindhouse, Machete, How to Eat Fried Worms, Bandslam and Lazer Team. In order to draw future film projects to the area, the Austin Film Society has converted several airplane hangars from the former Mueller Airport into filmmaking center Austin Studios. Projects that have used facilities at Austin Studios include music videos by The Flaming Lips and feature films such as 25th Hour and Sin City.
Austin also hosted the MTV series, The Real World: Austin in 2005. Season 4 of the AMC show Fear the Walking Dead was filmed in various locations around Austin in 2018. The film review websites Spill.com and Ain't It Cool News are based in Austin. Rooster Teeth Productions, creator of popular web series such as Red vs. Blue and RWBY, is also located in Austin.
Austin has a strong theater culture, with dozens of itinerant and resident companies producing a variety of work. The Church of the Friendly Ghost is a volunteer-run arts organization supporting creative expression and counter-culture community. The city also has live performance theater venues such as the Zachary Scott Theatre Center, Vortex Repertory Company, Salvage Vanguard Theater, Rude Mechanicals' the Off Center, Austin Playhouse, Scottish Rite Children's Theater, Hyde Park Theatre, the Blue Theater, The Hideout Theatre, and Esther's Follies. The Victory Grill was a renowned venue on the Chitlin' Circuit. Public art and performances in the parks and on bridges are popular. Austin hosts the Fuse Box Festival each April featuring theater artists.
The Paramount Theatre, opened in downtown Austin in 1915, contributes to Austin's theater and film culture, showing classic films throughout the summer and hosting regional premieres for films such as Miss Congeniality. The Zilker Park Summer Musical is a long-running outdoor musical.
The Long Center for the Performing Arts is a 2,300-seat theater built partly with materials reused from the old Lester E. Palmer Auditorium.
Ballet Austin is the fourth largest ballet academy in the country. Each year Ballet Austin's 20-member professional company performs ballets from a wide variety of choreographers, including their international award-winning artistic director, Stephen Mills. The city is also home to the Ballet East Dance Company, a modern dance ensemble, and the Tapestry Dance Company which performs a variety of dance genres.
The Austin improvisational theatre scene has several theaters: ColdTowne Theater, The Hideout Theater, The Fallout Theater, and The Institution Theater. Austin also hosts the Out of Bounds Comedy Festival, which draws comedic artists in all disciplines to Austin.
The Austin Public Library is a public library system operated by the City of Austin and consists of the Central Library on César Chávez Street, the Austin History Center, 20 branches and the Recycled Reads bookstore and upcycling facility. The APL library system also has mobile libraries – bookmobile buses and a human-powered trike and trailer called "unbound: sin fronteras."
The Central Library, which is an anchor to the redevelopment of the former Seaholm Power Plant site and the Shoal Creek Walk, opened on October 28, 2017. The six-story Central Library contains a living rooftop garden, reading porches, an indoor reading room, bicycle parking station, large indoor and outdoor event spaces, a gift shop, an art gallery, café, and a "technology petting zoo" where visitors can play with next-generation gadgets like 3D printers. In 2018, Time magazine named the Austin Central Library on its list of "World's Greatest Places."
Museums and other points of interest
Museums in Austin include the Texas Memorial Museum, the George Washington Carver Museum and Cultural Center, Thinkery, the Blanton Museum of Art (reopened in 2006), the Bob Bullock Texas State History Museum across the street (which opened in 2000), The Contemporary Austin, the Elisabet Ney Museum and the galleries at the Harry Ransom Center. The Texas State Capitol itself is also a major tourist attraction.
The Driskill Hotel, built in 1886, once owned by George W. Littlefield, and located at 6th and Brazos streets, was finished just before the construction of the Capitol building. Sixth Street is a musical hub for the city. The Enchanted Forest, a multi-acre outdoor music, art, and performance art space in South Austin hosts events such as fire-dancing and circus-like-acts. Austin is also home to the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum, which houses documents and artifacts related to the Johnson administration, including LBJ's limousine and a re-creation of the Oval Office.
Locally produced art is featured at the South Austin Museum of Popular Culture. The Mexic-Arte Museum is a Mexican and Mexican-American art museum founded in 1983. Austin is also home to the O. Henry House Museum, which served as the residence of O. Henry from 1893 to 1895. Farmers' markets are popular attractions, providing a variety of locally grown and often organic foods.
Austin also has many odd statues and landmarks, such as the Stevie Ray Vaughan Memorial, the Willie Nelson statue, the Mangia dinosaur, the Loca Maria lady at Taco Xpress, the Hyde Park Gym's giant flexed arm, and Daniel Johnston's Hi, How are You? Jeremiah the Innocent frog mural.
The Ann W. Richards Congress Avenue Bridge houses the world's largest urban population of Mexican free-tailed bats. Starting in March, up to 1.5 million bats take up residence inside the bridge's expansion and contraction zones as well as in long horizontal grooves running the length of the bridge's underside, an environment ideally suited for raising their young. Every evening around sunset, the bats emerge in search of insects, an exit visible on weather radar. Watching the bat emergence is an event that is popular with locals and tourists, with more than 100,000 viewers per year. The bats migrate to Mexico each winter.
The HOPE Outdoor Gallery is a public, three-story outdoor street art project located on Baylor Street in the Clarksville neighborhood. The gallery, which consists of the foundations of a failed multifamily development, is a constantly-evolving canvas of graffiti and murals. Also known as "Castle Hill" or simply "Graffiti Park," the site on Baylor Street was closed to the public in early January 2019 but remained intact, behind a fence and with an armed guard, in mid-March 2019. The gallery will build a new art park at Carson Creek Ranch in Southeast Austin.
|Round Rock Express||Baseball||2000||Pacific Coast League (AAA)||Dell Diamond|
|Austin Spurs||Basketball||2005||NBA G League||H-E-B Center at Cedar Park|
|Texas Stars||Ice hockey||2009||American Hockey League||H-E-B Center at Cedar Park|
|Austin Outlaws||Football||2003||Women's Football Alliance||House Park|
|Austin Huns||Rugby||1972||Texas Rugby Union||Huns Field at Nixon Lane|
|Austin Gilgronis||Rugby||2017||Major League Rugby||Circuit of the Americas|
|Austin Bold FC||Soccer||2018||USLC||Bold Stadium|
|Austin FC||Soccer||2019||Major League Soccer||Austin FC Stadium|
Many Austinites support the athletic programs of the University of Texas at Austin known as the Texas Longhorns. During the 2005–06 academic term, Longhorns football team was named the NCAA Division I FBS National Football Champion, and Longhorns baseball team won the College World Series. The Texas Longhorns play home games in the state's second-largest sports stadium, Darrell K Royal–Texas Memorial Stadium, seating over 101,000 fans. Baseball games are played at UFCU Disch–Falk Field.
Austin is the most populous city in the United States without a major-league professional sports team, which will change in 2021 with Austin FC entry to MLS. Minor-league professional sports came to Austin in 1996, when the Austin Ice Bats began playing at the Travis County Expo Center; they were later replaced by the AHL Texas Stars. Austin has hosted a number of other professional teams, including the Austin Spurs of the NBA G League, the Austin Aztex of the United Soccer League, the Austin Outlaws in WFA football, and the Austin Aces in WTT tennis.
Natural features like the bicycle-friendly Texas Hill Country and generally mild climate make Austin the home of several endurance and multi-sport races and communities. The Capitol 10,000 is the largest 10 k race in Texas, and approximately fifth largest in the United States. The Austin Marathon has been run in the city every year since 1992. Additionally, the city is home to the largest 5 mile race in Texas, named the Turkey Trot as it is run annually on thanksgiving. Started in 1991 by Thundercloud Subs, a local sandwich chain (who still sponsors the event), the event has grown to host over 20,000 runners. All proceeds are donated to Caritas of Austin, a local charity.
The Austin-founded American Swimming Association hosts several swim races around town. Austin is also the hometown of several cycling groups and the disgraced cyclist Lance Armstrong. Combining these three disciplines is a growing crop of triathlons, including the Capital of Texas Triathlon held every Memorial Day on and around Lady Bird Lake, Auditorium Shores, and Downtown Austin.
Austin is home to the Circuit of the Americas (COTA), a grade 1 FIA specification 3.427-mile (5.515 km) motor racing facility which hosts the Formula One United States Grand Prix. The State of Texas has pledged $25 million in public funds annually for 10 years to pay the sanctioning fees for the race. Built at an estimated cost of $250 to $300 million, the circuit opened in 2012 and is located just east of the Austin Bergstrom International Airport. In August 2017, a new soccer-specific stadium was announced to be built between the Austin360 Amphitheater and the Grand Plaza at COTA. A professional soccer team known as Austin Bold FC will start playing in the United Soccer League in 2019.
The summer of 2014 marked the inaugural season for World TeamTennis team Austin Aces, formerly Orange County Breakers of the southern California region. The Austin Aces played their matches at the Cedar Park Center northwest of Austin, and featured former professionals Andy Roddick and Marion Bartoli, as well as current WTA tour player Vera Zvonareva. The team left after the 2015 season.
In 2017, Precourt Sports Ventures announced a plan to move the Columbus Crew SC soccer franchise from Columbus, Ohio to Austin. Precourt negotiated an agreement with the City of Austin to build a $200 million privately funded stadium on public land at 10414 McKalla Place, following initial interest in Butler Shores Metropolitan Park and Roy G. Guerrero Colorado River Park. As part of an arrangement with the league, operational rights of Columbus Crew SC were sold in late 2018, and Austin FC was announced as Major League Soccer's 27th franchise on January 15, 2019, with the expansion team starting play in 2021.
Parks and recreation
To strengthen the region's parks system, which spans more than 29,000 acres (11,736 ha), The Austin Parks Foundation (APF) was established in 1992 to develop and improve parks in and around Austin. APF works to fill the city's park funding gap by leveraging volunteers, philanthropists, park advocates, and strategic collaborations to develop, maintain and enhance Austin's parks, trails and green spaces.
Lady Bird Lake
Lady Bird Lake (formerly Town Lake) is a river-like reservoir on the Colorado River. The lake is a popular recreational area for paddleboards, kayaks, canoes, dragon boats, and rowing shells. Austin's warm climate and the river's calm waters, nearly 6 miles (9.7 km) length and straight courses are especially popular with crew teams and clubs. Other recreational attractions along the shores of the lake include swimming in Deep Eddy Pool, the oldest swimming pool in Texas, and Red Bud Isle, a small island formed by the 1900 collapse of the McDonald Dam that serves as a recreation area with a dog park and access to the lake for canoeing and fishing. The 10.1 miles (16.3 km) Ann and Roy Butler Hike and Bike Trail forms a complete circuit around the lake. A local nonprofit, The Trail Foundation, is the Trail's private steward and has built amenities and infrastructure including trailheads, lakefront gathering areas, restrooms, exercise equipment, as well as doing Trailwide ecological restoration work on an ongoing basis. The Butler Trail loop was completed in 2014 with the public-private partnership 1-mile Boardwalk project.
Along the shores of Lady Bird Lake is the 350 acre (142 ha) Zilker Park, which contains large open lawns, sports fields, cross country courses, historical markers, concession stands, and picnic areas. Zilker Park is also home to numerous attractions, including the Zilker Botanical Garden, the Umlauf Sculpture Garden, Zilker Hillside Theater, the Austin Nature & Science Center, and the Zilker Zephyr, a 12 in (305 mm) gauge miniature railway carries passengers on a tour around the park. Auditorium Shores, an urban park along the lake, is home to the Palmer Auditorium, the Long Center for the Performing Arts, and an off-leash dog park on the water. Both Zilker Park and Auditorium Shores have a direct view of the Downtown skyline.
Barton Creek Greenbelt
The Barton Creek Greenbelt is a 7.25-mile (11.67 km) public green belt managed by the City of Austin's Park and Recreation Department. The Greenbelt, which begins at Zilker Park and stretches South/Southwest to the Woods of Westlake subdivision, is characterized by large limestone cliffs, dense foliage, and shallow bodies of water. Popular activities include rock climbing, mountain biking, and hiking. Some well known naturally forming swimming holes along Austin's greenbelt include Twin Falls, Sculpture Falls, Gus Fruh Pool, and Campbell's Hole. During years of heavy rainfall, the water level of the creek rises high enough to allow swimming, cliff diving, kayaking, and tubing.
Austin is home to more than 50 public pools and swimming holes. These include Deep Eddy Pool, Texas' oldest man-made swimming pool, and Barton Springs Pool, the nation's largest natural swimming pool in an urban area. Barton Springs Pool is spring-fed while Deep Eddy is well-fed. Both range in temperature from about 68.0 °F (20.0 °C) during the winter to about 71.6 °F (22.0 °C) during the summer. Hippie Hollow Park, a county park situated along Lake Travis, is the only officially sanctioned clothing-optional public park in Texas. Hamilton Pool Preserve is a natural pool that was created when the dome of an underground river collapsed due to massive erosion thousands of years ago. The pool, located about 23 miles (37 km) west of Austin, is a popular summer swimming spot for visitors and residents. Hamilton Pool Preserve consists of 232 acres (0.94 km2) of protected natural habitat featuring a jade green pool into which a 50-foot (15 m) waterfall flows.
Other parks and recreation
Camping is legal on all public property except in front of City Hall since 2019. However, "Other areas where camping remains banned include any city park space, under Austin Parks and Recreation rules. That includes downtown green spaces as well as trails and greenbelts such as along Barton Creek."
McKinney Falls State Park is a state park administered by the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, located at the confluence of Onion Creek and Williamson Creek. The park includes several designated hiking trails and campsites with water and electric. The namesake features of the park are the scenic upper and lower falls along Onion Creek. The Emma Long Metropolitan Park is a municipal park along the shores of Lake Austin, originally constructed by the Civilian Conservation Corps. The 284 acres (115 ha) Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center is a botanical garden and arboretum that features more than 800 species of native Texas plants in both garden and natural settings; the Wildflower Center is located 10 miles (16 km) southwest of Downtown in Circle C Ranch. Roy G. Guerrero Park is located along the Colorado River in East Riverside and contains miles of wooded trails, a sandy beach along the river, and a disc golf course.
Covert Park, located on the top of Mount Bonnell, is a popular tourist destination overlooking Lake Austin and the Colorado River. The mount provides a vista for viewing the city of Austin, Lake Austin, and the surrounding hills. It was designated a Recorded Texas Historic Landmark in 1969, bearing Marker number 6473, and was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2015.
The Austin Country Club is a private golf club located along the shores of the Colorado River, right next to the Pennybacker Bridge. Founded in 1899, the club moved to its third and present site in 1984, which features a challenging layout designed by noted course architect Pete Dye.
FBI statistics show that overall violent and property crimes dropped in Austin in 2015, but increased in suburban areas of the city. One such southeastern suburb, Del Valle, reported eight homicides within two months in 2016. According to 2016 APD crime statistics, the 78723 census tract had the most violent crime, with 6 murders, 25 rapes, and 81 robberies.
One of the first American school mass-shooting incidents took place in Austin on August 1, 1966, when a gunman shot 43 people, killing 13 from the top of the University of Texas tower (see University of Texas tower shooting). This event led to the formation of the SWAT team.
In 2010, Andrew Joseph Stack III deliberately crashed his Piper Cherokee PA-28 into Echelon 1, a building in which the IRS, housing 190 employees was a lessee of. The resulting explosion killed 1 and injured 13 IRS employees, completely destroyed the building and cost the IRS a total of $38.6 million. (see 2010 Austin suicide attack)
A series of bombings occurred in Austin in March 2018.
Austin is administered by an 11-member city council (10 council members elected by geographic district plus a mayor elected at large). The council is accompanied by a hired city manager under the manager-council system of municipal governance. Council and mayoral elections are non-partisan, with a runoff in case there is no majority winner. A referendum approved by voters on November 6, 2012 changed the council composition from six council members plus a mayor elected at large to the current "10+1" district system. November 2014 marked the first election under the new system. The Federal government had forced San Antonio and Dallas to abandon at-large systems before 1987; however, the court could not show a racist pattern in Austin and upheld the city's at-large system during a 1984 lawsuit. In five elections between 1973 and 1994 Austin voters rejected single-member districts.
Austin formerly operated its city hall at 128 West 8th Street. Antoine Predock and Cotera Kolar Negrete & Reed Architects designed a new city hall building, which was intended to reflect what The Dallas Morning News referred to as a "crazy-quilt vitality, that embraces everything from country music to environmental protests and high-tech swagger." The new city hall, built from recycled materials, has solar panels in its garage. The city hall, at 301 West Second Street, opened in November 2004. Steve Adler assumed the office of mayor on January 6, 2015.
Law enforcement in Austin is provided by the Austin Police Department, except for state government buildings, which are patrolled by the Texas Department of Public Safety. The University of Texas Police operate from the University of Texas.
Fire protection within the city limits is provided by the Austin Fire Department, while the surrounding county is divided into twelve geographical areas known as emergency services districts, which are covered by separate regional fire departments. Emergency medical services are provided for the whole county by Austin-Travis County Emergency Medical Services.
|District||Name||Party (officially nonpartisan)||References|
|3||Sabino "Pio" Renteria||Democratic|||
Other levels of government
The United States Postal Service operates several post offices in Austin.
Austin is known as an enclave of liberal politics in an otherwise conservative state—so much so, that the city is sometimes sarcastically called the "People's Republic of Austin" by residents of other parts of Texas, and conservatives in the Texas Legislature. Former Governor Rick Perry referred to it as a "blueberry in the tomato soup," meaning it is a democratic city in a republican state.
Since redistricting following the 2010 United States Census, Austin has been divided between six congressional districts at the federal level: Texas's 35th, Texas's 25th, Texas's 10th, Texas's 21st, Texas's 17th, and Texas's 31st. Texas's 35th congressional district is represented by Democrat Lloyd Doggett. The other five districts are represented by Republicans, of whom only one, Michael McCaul of the 10th district, lives in Travis County.
|2020||26.4% 161,337||71.4% 435,860|
|2016||27.4% 126,750||66.3% 306,475|
|2012||36.2% 140,152||60.1% 232,788|
|2008||34.3% 136,981||63.5% 254,017|
|2004||42.0% 147,885||56.0% 197,235|
|2000||46.9% 141,235||41.7% 125,526|
|1996||39.9% 98,454||52.3% 128,970|
|1992||31.9% 88,105||47.3% 130,546|
|1988||44.9% 105,915||54.1% 127,783|
|1984||56.8% 124,944||42.8% 94,124|
|1980||45.7% 73,151||46.9% 75,028|
|1976||46.7% 71,031||51.6% 78,585|
|1972||56.3% 70,561||43.2% 54,157|
|1968||41.6% 34,309||48.1% 39,667|
|1964||31.0% 19,838||68.9% 44,058|
|1960||44.9% 22,107||54.9% 27,022|
As a result of the major party realignment that began in the 1970s, central Austin became a stronghold of the Democratic Party, while the suburbs tend to vote Republican. Overall, the city is a blend of downtown liberalism and suburban conservatism but leans to the political left as a whole. The city last went to a Republican candidate in 2000 when former Texas Governor George W. Bush successfully ran for president. In 2004, the Democrats rebounded strongly as John Kerry enjoyed a 14.0% margin over Bush, who once again won Texas.
City residents have been supportive of alternative candidates; for example, Ralph Nader won 10.4% of the vote in Austin in 2000.
In 2003, the city adopted a resolution against the USA PATRIOT Act that reaffirmed constitutionally guaranteed rights.
As of 2018, all six of Austin's state legislative districts are held by Democrats.
Travis County was also the only county in Texas to reject Texas Constitutional Amendment Proposition 2 that effectively outlawed gay marriage and status equal or similar to it and did so by a wide margin (40% for, 60% against).
Two of the candidates for president in the 2004 race called Austin home. Michael Badnarik, the Libertarian Party candidate, and David Cobb of the Green Party both had lived in Austin. During the run up to the election in November, a presidential debate was held at the University of Texas at Austin student union involving the two candidates. While the Commission on Presidential Debates only invites Democrats and Republicans to participate in televised debates, the debate at UT was open to all presidential candidates. Austin also hosted one of the last presidential debates between Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton during their heated race for the Democratic nomination in 2008.
A controversial turning point in the political history of the Austin area was the 2003 Texas redistricting. Before then, Austin had been entirely or almost entirely within the borders of a single congressional district–what was then the 10th District–for over a century. Opponents characterized the resulting district layout as excessively partisan gerrymandering, and the plan was challenged in court by Democratic and minority activists. The Supreme Court of the United States has never struck down a redistricting plan for being excessively partisan. The plan was subsequently upheld by a three-judge federal panel in late 2003, and on June 28, 2006, the matter was largely settled when the Supreme Court, in a 7–2 decision, upheld the entire congressional redistricting plan with the exception of a Hispanic-majority district in southwest Texas. This affected Austin's districting, as U.S. Rep. Lloyd Doggett's district (U.S. Congressional District 25) was found to be insufficiently compact to compensate for the reduced minority influence in the southwest district; it was redrawn so that it took in most of southeastern Travis County and several counties to its south and east.
The distinguishing political movement of Austin politics has been that of the environmental movement, which spawned the parallel neighborhood movement, then the more recent conservationist movement (as typified by the Hill Country Conservancy), and eventually the current ongoing debate about "sense of place" and preserving the Austin quality of life. Much of the environmental movement has matured into a debate on issues related to saving and creating an Austin "sense of place." In 2012, Austin became just one of a few cities in Texas to ban the sale and use of plastic bags. However, the ban ended in 2018 due to a court ruling that regarded all bag bans in the state to contravene the Texas Solid Waste Disposal Act.
Over 43% of Austin residents age 25 and over hold a bachelor's degree, while 16% hold a graduate degree. In 2009, greater Austin ranked eighth among metropolitan areas in the United States for bachelor's degree attainment with nearly 39% of area residents over 25 holding a bachelor's degree.
Other institutions of higher learning in Austin include St. Edward's University, Huston–Tillotson University, Austin Community College, Concordia University, the Seminary of the Southwest, the Acton School of Business, Texas Health and Science University, University of St. Augustine for Health Sciences, Austin Graduate School of Theology, Austin Presbyterian Theological Seminary, Virginia College's Austin Campus, The Art Institute of Austin, Southern Careers Institute of Austin, Austin Conservatory and a branch of Park University.
Public primary and secondary education
The Austin area has 29 public school districts, 17 charter schools and 69 private schools. Most of the city is served by the Austin Independent School District. This district includes notable schools such as the magnet Liberal Arts and Science Academy High School of Austin, Texas (LASA), which, by test scores, has consistently been within the top thirty high schools in the nation, as well as The Ann Richards School for Young Women Leaders. Some parts of Austin are served by other districts, including Round Rock, Pflugerville, Leander, Manor, Del Valle, Lake Travis, Hays, and Eanes ISD. Four of the metro's major public school systems, representing 54% of area enrollment, are included in Expansion Management magazine's latest annual education quality ratings of nearly 2,800 school districts nationwide. Two districts—Eanes and Round Rock—are rated "gold medal," the highest of the magazine's cost-performance categories.
Private and alternative education
Austin has a large network of private and alternative education institutions for children in preschool-12th grade exists. Austin is also home to child developmental institutions.
Austin's main daily newspaper is the Austin American-Statesman. The Austin Chronicle is Austin's alternative weekly, while The Daily Texan is the student newspaper of the University of Texas at Austin. Austin's business newspaper is the weekly Austin Business Journal. The Austin Monitor is an online outlet that specializes in insider reporting on City Hall, Travis County Commissioners Court, AISD, and other related local civics beats. The Monitor is backed by the nonprofit Capital of Texas Media Foundation. Austin also has numerous smaller special interest or sub-regional newspapers such as the Oak Hill Gazette, Westlake Picayune, Hill Country News, Round Rock Leader, NOKOA, and The Villager among others. Texas Monthly, a major regional magazine, is also headquartered in Austin. The Texas Observer, a muckraking biweekly political magazine, has been based in Austin for over five decades. The weekly Community Impact Newspaper published by John Garrett, former publisher of the Austin Business Journal has five regional editions and is delivered to every house and business within certain ZIP codes and all of the news is specific to those ZIP codes. Another statewide publication based in Austin is The Texas Tribune, an on-line publication focused on Texas politics. The Tribune is "user-supported" through donations, a business model similar to public radio. The editor is Evan Smith, former editor of Texas Monthly. Smith co-founded the Texas Tribune, a nonprofit, non-partisan public media organization, with Austin venture capitalist John Thornton and veteran journalist Ross Ramsey.
Commercial radio stations include KASE-FM (country), KVET (sports), KVET-FM (country), KKMJ-FM (adult contemporary), KLBJ (talk), KLBJ-FM (classic rock), KTSN (progressive country), KFMK (contemporary Christian), KOKE-FM (progressive country) and KPEZ (rhythmic contemporary). KUT-FM is the leading public radio station in Texas and produces the majority of its content locally. KOOP (FM) is a volunteer-run radio station with more than 60 locally produced programs. KVRX is the student-run college radio station of the University of Texas at Austin with a focus on local and non-mainstream music and community programming. Other listener-supported stations include KAZI (urban contemporary), and KMFA (classical).
Network television stations (affiliations in parentheses) include KTBC (Fox O&O), KVUE (ABC), KXAN (NBC), KEYE-TV (CBS), KLRU (PBS), KNVA (The CW), KBVO (My Network TV), and KAKW (Univision O&O). KLRU produces several award-winning locally produced programs such as Austin City Limits.
Alex Jones, journalist, radio show host and filmmaker, produces his talk show The Alex Jones Show in Austin which broadcasts nationally on more than 60 AM and FM radio stations in the United States, WWCR Radio shortwave and XM Radio: Channel 166.
In 2009, 72.7% of Austin (city) commuters drove alone, with other mode shares being: 10.4% carpool, 6% work from home, 5% use transit, 2.3% walk, and 1% bicycle. In 2016, the American Community Survey estimated modal shares for Austin (city) commuters of 73.5% for driving alone, 9.6% for carpooling, 3.6% for riding transit, 2% for walking, and 1.5% for cycling. The city of Austin has a lower than average percentage of households without a car. In 2015, 6.9 percent of Austin households lacked a car, and decreased slightly to 6 percent in 2016. The national average was 8.7 percent in 2016. Austin averaged 1.65 cars per household in 2016, compared to a national average of 1.8.
Central Austin lies between two major north–south freeways: Interstate 35 to the east and the Mopac Expressway (Loop 1) to the west. U.S. Highway 183 runs from northwest to southeast, and State Highway 71 crosses the southern part of the city from east to west, completing a rough "box" around central and north-central Austin. Austin is the largest city in the United States to be served by only one Interstate Highway.
U.S. Highway 290 enters Austin from the east and merges into Interstate 35. Its highway designation continues south on I-35 and then becomes part of Highway 71, continuing to the west. Highway 290 splits from Highway 71 in southwest Austin, in an interchange known as "The Y." Highway 71 continues to Brady, Texas, and Highway 290 continues west to intersect Interstate 10 near Junction. Interstate 35 continues south through San Antonio to Laredo on the Texas-Mexico border. Interstate 35 is the highway link to the Dallas-Fort Worth metro-plex in northern Texas. There are two links to Houston, Texas (Highway 290 and State Highway 71/Interstate 10). Highway 183 leads northwest of Austin toward Lampasas.
In the mid-1980s, construction was completed on Loop 360, a scenic highway that curves through the hill country from near the 71/Mopac interchange in the south to near the 183/Mopac interchange in the north. The iconic Pennybacker Bridge, also known as the "360 Bridge," crosses Lake Austin to connect the northern and southern portions of Loop 360.
State Highway 130 is a bypass route designed to relieve traffic congestion, starting from Interstate 35 just north of Georgetown and running along a parallel route to the east, where it bypasses Round Rock, Austin, San Marcos and New Braunfels before ending at Interstate 10 east of Seguin, where drivers could drive 30 miles (48 km) west to return to Interstate 35 in San Antonio. The first segment was opened in November 2006, which was located east of Austin–Bergstrom International Airport at Austin's southeast corner on State Highway 71. Highway 130 runs concurrently with Highway 45 from Pflugerville on the north until it reaches US 183 well south of Austin, at which point SR 45 continues west. The entire route of State Highway 130 is now complete. The final leg opened on November 1, 2012. The highway is noted for having a maximum speed limit of 85 mph (137 km/h) for the entire route. The 41-mile section of the toll road between Mustang Ridge and Seguin has a posted speed limit of 85 mph (137 km/h), the highest posted speed limit in the United States.
State Highway 45 runs east–west from just south of Highway 183 in Cedar Park to 130 inside Pflugerville (just east of Round Rock). A tolled extension of State Highway Loop 1 was also created. A new southeast leg of Highway 45 has recently been completed, running from US 183 and the south end of Segment 5 of TX-130 south of Austin due west to I-35 at the FM 1327/Creedmoor exit between the south end of Austin and Buda. The 183A Toll Road opened in March 2007, providing a tolled alternative to U.S. 183 through the cities of Leander and Cedar Park. Currently under construction is a change to East US 290 from US 183 to the town of Manor. Officially, the tollway will be dubbed Tollway 290 with "Manor Expressway" as nickname. Despite the overwhelming initial opposition to the toll road concept when it was first announced, all three toll roads have exceeded revenue projections.
Austin's airport is Austin–Bergstrom International Airport (ABIA) (IATA code AUS), located 5 miles (8 km) southeast of the city. The airport is on the site of the former Bergstrom Air Force Base, which was closed in 1993 as part of the Base Realignment and Closure process. Previously, Robert Mueller Municipal Airport was the commercial airport of Austin. Austin Executive Airport serves the general aviation coming into the city, as well as other smaller airports outside of the city center.
Intercity bus service
Greyhound Lines operates the Austin Station at 916 East Koenig Lane, just east of Airport Boulevard and adjacent to Highland Mall. Turimex Internacional operates bus service from Austin to Nuevo Laredo and on to many destinations in Mexico. The Turimex station is located at 5012 East 7th Street, near Shady Lane.
Intercity rail service
An Amtrak Texas Eagle station is located in west downtown. Railway segments between Austin and San Antonio have been evaluated for a proposed regional passenger rail project called "Lone Star Rail". However, failure to come to an agreement with the Union Pacific Railroad, the tracks' current owner, ended the project in 2016.
The Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authority ("Capital Metro") provides public transportation to the city, primarily by bus. Some heavily utilized routes feature articulated buses.
Capital Metro opened a 32-mile (51 km) commuter rail system known as Capital MetroRail on March 22, 2010. The system operates on existing freight rail lines and serves downtown Austin, East Austin, North Central Austin, Northwest Austin, and Leander in its first phase. Future expansion could include a line to Manor and another to Round Rock.
Capital Metro has also explored building a light rail system to connect the MetroRail line to key destinations in Central Austin. On August 7, 2014, the Austin City Council unanimously voted to place a $600 million light rail bond proposal on the November 4, 2014 ballot; the ballot measure was voted down. Capital Metro returned in 2020 with a major transit expansion plan called Project Connect, which was comfortably passed by voters on the November 2020 ballot. At a total project cost of $10 billion, the Project Connect system plan proposes 3 new light rail lines, 1 new commuter rail line, several new MetroRapid lines, more park-and-rides, more express bus routes, and improvements to the existing local bus system and fare technology.
Capital Area Rural Transportation System connects Austin with outlying suburbs.
In Summer 2018, Capital Metro began testing autonomous electric shuttles on Downtown streets. The pilot program tested two driverless bus models from EasyMile and Navya on a route from the Austin Convention Center to the Austin Central Library. Capital Metro is also considering implementing full-size driverless buses, likely to be included on a 2020 transportation referendum.
Austin is served by several ride-sharing companies including Uber, Lyft, and . On May 9, 2016, Uber and Lyft voluntarily ceased operations in Austin in response to a city ordinance that required drivers for Uber, Lyft, and other transportation network companies to get fingerprint checks, to have their vehicles labeled, and to not pick up and drop off in certain city lanes. Uber and Lyft resumed service in the summer of 2017. The city was previously served by Fasten until they ceased all operations in the city in March 2018.
The City of Austin is partnered with Austin B-Cycle, a nonprofit bike-sharing service with 63 stations in and around downtown for human-powered and electric bicycles. In 2018, Lime began offering dockless bikes, which do not need to be docked at a designated station.
In 2018, scooter-sharing companies Lime and Bird debuted rentable electric scooters in Austin. The city briefly banned the scooters - which began operations before the city could implement a permitting system - until the city completed development of their "dockless mobility" permitting process on May 1, 2018. Dockless electric scooters and bikes are banned from Austin city parks and the Ann and Roy Butler Trail and boardwalk. For the 2018 Austin City Limits Music Festival, the city of Austin offered a designated parking area for dockless bikes and scooters.
Austin is also served by Electric Cab of North America's six-passenger electric cabs that operate on a flexible route from the Kramer MetroRail Station to Domain Northside and from the Downtown MetroRail station and MetroRapid stops to locations between the Austin Convention Center and near Sixth and Bowie streets by Whole Foods.
Cycling and walking
Bicycles are a popular transportation choice among students, faculty, and staff at the University of Texas. According to a survey done at the University of Texas, 57% of commuters bike to campus.
A 2013 study by Walk Score ranked Austin 35th most walkable of the 50 largest U.S. cities. More recently, Walk Score rated some Austin neighborhoods among the most walkable in Texas. Downtown Austin scored 88 points out of a possible 100, with the West Campus neighborhood scoring 87, and East Austin scoring 81.
Austin has two types of relationships with other cities, sister and friendship.
Austin's sister cities are:
- Adelaide, Australia (1983)
- Angers, France (2011)
- Antalya, Turkey (2009)
- Gwangmyeong, South Korea (2001)
- Hackney, England, United Kingdom (2014)
- Koblenz, Germany (1991)
- Lima, Peru (1981)
- Maseru, Lesotho (1978)
- Ōita, Japan (1990)
- Orlu, Nigeria (2000)
- Pune, India (2018)
- Saltillo, Mexico (1968)
- Taichung, Taiwan (1986)
- Xishuangbanna, China (1997)
Covenants between two city leaders:
- Easton Park, a planned unit development in the southeast portion of Austin
- List of companies based in Austin, Texas
- List of people from Austin, Texas
- National Register of Historic Places listings in Travis County, Texas
- Williamson Creek Greenbelt
- All elected officials in the city of Austin are officially nonpartisan; party affiliation is for informational purposes only.
- Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the highest and lowest temperature readings during an entire month or year) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
- Official records for Austin were kept at downtown from September 1891 to July 1942, Mueller Airport from August 1942 to June 1999, and at Camp Mabry since July 1999. For more information, see Threadex
- "Government | AustinTexas.gov - The Official Website of the City of Austin". www.austintexas.gov. Retrieved April 14, 2018.
- "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 7, 2020.
- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved May 21, 2020.
- "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Census Summary File 1 (G001): Austin city, Texas". American Factfinder. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved February 8, 2018.
- "Austin, Texas". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
- Wells, John C. (2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.). Longman. ISBN 978-1-4058-8118-0.
- "Endorsement: Prop A's Project Connect is a steep but overdue investment". Austin American-Statesman. October 7, 2020. Retrieved October 13, 2020.
- "Top 50 Cities in the U.S. by Population and Rank". infoplease.com. Retrieved January 27, 2014.
- "City of Austin - Austin History Center: When was Austin founded?". www.austinlibrary.com.
- Weissmann, Jordan (May 21, 2015). "Population growth in U.S. cities: Austin is blowing away the competition". Slate.
- "America's Fastest Growing Cities 2016". Forbes. January 14, 2017.
- "The World According to GaWC 2020". lboro.ac.uk. Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Retrieved March 5, 2021.
- "QuickFacts -- Austin, Texas". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved June 8, 2019.
- Castillo, Juan. "Old story, new chapter: Austin leads U.S. in growth among biggest metro areas". Austin American-Statesman. Retrieved December 14, 2020.
- Weird City. University of Texas Press. May 1, 2010. ISBN 9780292778153. Archived from the original on May 9, 2013. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
- "Live Music Capital of the World". Austin City Connection. City of Austin. Retrieved June 12, 2007.
- "The ATX". ATX Fest. Archived from the original on April 6, 2007. Retrieved April 6, 2007.
- "MetroSeeker.com". MetroSeeker.com. Archived from the original on November 20, 2011. Retrieved November 16, 2011.
- Kanter, Alexis (September 9, 2004). "Keep Austin Weird?". The Daily Texan. Archived from the original on July 24, 2008. Retrieved July 28, 2008.
- "Just what is a violet crown?". Retrieved August 19, 2016.
- "Brief History of Austin". Austin Public Library.
- "The History of Austin". Austin City Connection. City of Austin. Archived from the original on February 8, 2012. Retrieved December 28, 2007.
- Canales, Katie (July 6, 2019). "Silicon Valley tech talent is flocking to Austin, Texas, trading sky-high rent costs for live music and a newer tech scene — here's what it's like in 'Silicon Hills'". Business Insider. Retrieved January 15, 2020.
- "University of Texas at Austin". U.S. News and World Report - Best Colleges Ranking.
- "Handbook of Texas Online, "Gault Site" entry". June 15, 2010. Retrieved July 18, 2010.
- "What Native American tribe was most common in the area?". Austin City Connection. City of Austin. Archived from the original on February 8, 2012. Retrieved September 20, 2007.
- Cecil, Paul F.; Greene, Daniel P.: Hays County from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved Feb 17, 2010. Texas State Historical Association.
- Ryan, Steven (June 9, 2010). "Austin, Catholic Diocese of". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Archived from the original on July 10, 2011. Retrieved May 28, 2011.
- Marks, Paula Mitchell: Bastrop, Texas from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved Feb 17, 2010. Texas State Historical Association.
- Garrett, Daphne Dalton: Fayette County from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved Feb 17, 2010. Texas State Historical Association.
- Smyrl, Vivian Elizabeth: Travis County from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved February 17, 2010. Texas State Historical Association.
- "History Lesson". Austin Convention & Visitors Bureau. Retrieved July 28, 2008.
- Humphrey, David C.: Austin, Texas from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved February 17, 2010. Texas State Historical Association.
- Patoski, Joe Nick. "It's Just Different Here," Preservation, July/August 2010, page 38
- Waterloo, Texas from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved February 17, 2010. Texas State Historical Association.
- Erlichman (2006), p. 61.
- Plum Creek, Battle of from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved February 17, 2010. Texas State Historical Association.
- "City of Austin Community Inventory Report". Austin City Connection. Archived from the original on March 9, 2010. Retrieved December 11, 2009.
- "Austin Treasures: First Year Firsts: 1839". Austin City Connections. Archived from the original on January 9, 2002. Retrieved April 18, 2011.
- Census Office, Department of the Interior (1961). "Map Showing the Distribution of the Slave Population of the Southern States of the United States" (PDF). The New York Times. Retrieved December 13, 2010.
- "Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals by Race, 1790 to 1990, and by Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, for Large Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 12, 2012. Retrieved December 24, 2011.
- Roots Web, retrieved July 13, 2010 Archived May 9, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
- "Texas Transportation Museum". Txtransportationmuseum.org/. Archived from the original on September 30, 2011. Retrieved September 15, 2014.
- Martin, Don (2009). Austin, p. 31. Arcadia Publishing, Chicago, Illinois, ISBN 978-0-7385-7067-9
- "History of the Cotton gin (postcard images)". Texasescapes.com. Retrieved September 15, 2014.
- Martin, Don (2009). Austin, p. 30. Arcadia Publishing, Chicago, Illinois, ISBN 978-0-7385-7067-9
- Greene, Daniel P.: Austin, Texas from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved Feb 17, 2010. Texas State Historical Association.
- Martin, Don (2009). Austin, p. 84. Arcadia Publishing, Chicago, Illinois, ISBN 978-0-7385-7067-9
- Martin, Don (2009). Austin, p. 107. Arcadia Publishing, Chicago, Illinois, ISBN 978-0-7385-7067-9
- Tretter, Eliot (2016). Shadows of a Sunbelt City - The Environment, Racism, and the Knowledge Economy in Austin. The University of Georgia Press. p. 126. ISBN 9780820344898.
- McDonald, Jason (2012). Racial Dynamics in Early Twentieth-Century Austin, Texas. Lexington Books. ISBN/9780739170977
- Martin, Don (2009). Austin, p. 111. Arcadia Publishing, Chicago, Illinois, ISBN 978-0-7385-7067-9
- Martin, Don (2009). Austin, p. 112. Arcadia Publishing, Chicago, Illinois, ISBN 978-0-7385-7067-9
- "Austin in Texas". Writeonaustin.com. Retrieved April 16, 2010.
- "Distance from Austin, TX to Houston, TX". check-distance.com. Retrieved December 2, 2018.
- "Distance from Austin, TX to Dallas, TX". check-distance.com. Retrieved December 2, 2018.
- "Distance from Austin, TX to San Antonio, TX". check-distance.com. Retrieved December 2, 2018.
- Humphrey, David C.: Austin, Texas from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved February 4, 2010. Texas State Historical Association.
- Abbott (2003), p. 80.
- Baird (2009), p. 24.
- Jordan, Terry G.: Hill Country from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved November 7, 2009. Texas State Historical Association.
- "Watches and warnings". News 8 Austin. Archived from the original on January 14, 2010. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
- McCann, William: Lower Colorado River Authority from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved February 7, 2010. Texas State Historical Association.
- "Austin Climate Summary" (PDF). NOAA. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 6, 2011. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
- "Austin Texas Weather Patterns". Visiting Austin Texas. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
- Vines (1984), p. 4–6.
- Baird (2009), p. 225.
- Nora Fowler; School of Biological Sciences. "Geology (Edward's Plateau Ecology)". University of Texas at Austin. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
- "Austonian Reaches Full Height". KTBC. Archived from the original on December 3, 2009. Retrieved October 17, 2009.
- Downtown Commission (June 2007). "Downtown Development and Capitol View Corridors" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on February 29, 2008. Retrieved March 4, 2008.
- "Austin History Center a division of the Austin Public Library: Frequently Asked Questions about Austin, Answer 4". Archived from the original on September 21, 2001. Retrieved July 15, 2010.
- "Booming downtown Austin condo market". Austin-American Statesman. February 2008.
- "The surprising backstory of Austin's goal for 25,000 downtown residents". Austin-American Statesman. December 4, 2015.
- "U.S. Climate Data". usclimatedata.com.
- "Austin Texas USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map". plantmaps.com plantmaps. Retrieved January 14, 2019.
- "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved November 30, 2012.
- "Austin Weather Averages". CurrentResults.com. Retrieved May 9, 2017.
- "Very hot early september 2000 weather". National Weather Service. Archived from the original on January 3, 2008. Retrieved March 19, 2007.
- "Normals for Austin, Texas". The Weather Channel. Retrieved July 13, 2006.
- "Austin's all-time high: 112 degrees". Statesman.com. Archived from the original on December 20, 2011. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
- "Austin Weather & Climate". About.com. Archived from the original on January 18, 2007. Retrieved March 19, 2007.
- Price, Asher; Taboada, Melissa B.; Jankowski, Phillip. "Cold leads to crashes, closings, cancellations: Schools close, flights fall through as freezing rain, sleet coat area." Austin American-Statesman. January 25, 2014.
- "It's not always sweltering in Central Texas. Honest." Austin American-Statesman. July 27, 2008.
- Plohetski, Tony. "Wearing winter white." Austin American-Statesman. February 5, 2011.
- "Amid the misery of Austin's winter storm, kid-like joy". Austin American-Statesman. Retrieved February 15, 2021.
- "Data Foundry: Austin Risk Assessment" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on April 16, 2017. Retrieved April 15, 2017.
- "Austin Flood Safety". Retrieved April 15, 2017.
- "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
- "Station Name: TX AUSTIN-CAMP MABRY". National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved July 25, 2020.
- "WMO Climate Normals for AUSTIN/MUNICIPAL AP TX 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved July 25, 2020.
- "Austin, Texas, USA - Monthly weather forecast and Climate data". Weather Atlas. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
- Galbraith, Kate (August 26, 2011). "Assessing Climate Change in a Drought-Stricken State". The New York Times. Retrieved September 7, 2011.
- Anchondo, Carlos (October 22, 2018). "Austin issues city-wide boil water notice; calls for action "to avoid running out of water"". Texas Tribune. Retrieved December 18, 2018.
- Reding, Shawna (October 20, 2018). "Austin's Lake Travis level decreases for first time this week following recent floods". KVUE. Retrieved December 18, 2018.
- Mulder, Brandon, Wilson, Mark D. (October 28, 2018). "Austin water drinkable again, but keep usage low, officials say". Austin American-Statesman. Retrieved December 18, 2018.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- "Austin (city), Texas". State & County QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 8, 2012. Retrieved May 25, 2014.
- From 15% sample
- American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau. "Austin city, Texas – Race, Hispanic or Latino, Age, and Housing Occupancy: 2010". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 19, 2011.
- "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
- "Austin Housing Trends and Values". HouseAlmanac.com. Archived from the original on May 21, 2006. Retrieved December 12, 2009.
- "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: UNITED STATES; Austin city, Texas". Census Bureau QuickFacts. Retrieved August 29, 2018.
- Donahue, Emily and David Brown. "Austin's the Only Fast-Growing City in the Country Losing African-Americans" (Archive). KUT. Moody College of Communication at the University of Texas at Austin, Friday May 16, 2014. Retrieved on May 20, 2014.
- "Top Ten Demographic Trends in Austin, Texas | Planning and Zoning | AustinTexas.gov - The Official Website of the City of Austin". AustinTexas.gov. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
- "People Keep Moving To Austin, But Where Are They Coming From?". KUT Radio, Austin's NPR Station. May 16, 2019.
- Wong, Curtis M. (March 20, 2015). "And The U.S. City With The Highest Percentage Of LGBT People Is". HuffPost.
- Hensley, Nicole (March 20, 2015). "Salt Lake City has higher percentage of LGBT people than NYC". New York Daily News. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
- "Austin, Texas Religion". www.bestplaces.net. Retrieved August 29, 2018.
- Inc, Gallup. "Five Key Findings on Religion in the U.S." Gallup.com. Retrieved January 31, 2019.
- "Home". Atheist Community of Austin.
- "Homelessness in Austin". Austin ECHO. Retrieved January 9, 2020.
- Mekelburg, Madlin (October 17, 2019). "How much does the city of Austin spend, per homeless person?". PolitiFact. Retrieved January 9, 2020.
- "Opinions" (PDF). cdn.ca9.uscourts.gov. 2018.
- Sanders, Austin (June 21, 2019). "Council Bites the Bullet, Helps the Homeless". The Austin Chronicle. Retrieved January 9, 2020.
- Bova, Gus (November 1, 2019). "Greg Abbott vs. Austin's Homeless". Texas Observer. Retrieved January 9, 2020.
- Bova, Gus (December 20, 2019). "Greg Abbott's 'Indefinite,' Imperfect Homeless Camp". Texas Observer. Retrieved January 9, 2020.
- "GDP by MSA". Greyhill Advisors. Retrieved September 23, 2011.
- "Austin: Economy". City-Data.com. Archived from the original on September 23, 2008. Retrieved September 20, 2008.
- Kotkin, Joel. "The Best Cities for Jobs 2012". Forbes. Retrieved May 14, 2012.
- "WSJ Marketwatch Top 10 U.S. Cities for Growing Businesses". MarketWatch. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- "Best Places For Business and Careers". Forbes. Retrieved January 15, 2014.
- Calnan, Christopher (April 29, 2010). "Status update: Facebook opening Sixth St. office". Austin Business Journal. Retrieved May 28, 2011.
- DeVol, Ross; Wong, Perry; Ki, Junghoon; Bedroussian, Armen; Koepp Rob. "America's Biotech and Life Science Clusters: San Diego's Position and Economic Contributions". Milken Institute. Archived from the original on September 30, 2008. Retrieved September 20, 2008.
- "2019 U.S. Life Sciences Clusters". CBRE.us. CBRE Group. February 13, 2019.
Source: CBRE Research, Q4 2018.
- "About Whole Foods Market". Archived from the original on October 24, 2010. Retrieved October 12, 2010.
- Herrera, Sebastian. "VC investment in Austin has never been so robust. What does it mean?". Austin American-Statesman. Retrieved October 22, 2019.
- Long, Joshua (2010). Weird City: Sense of Place and Creative Resistance in Austin, Texas. Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0292722415.
- Swearingen, W.S. (2010) Environmental City. Austin: University of Texas Press.
- "The Nielsen Company Issues Top Ten U.S. Lists For 2007". Nielsen Company. Archived from the original on January 19, 2008. Retrieved December 12, 2007.
- Dunbar, Wells (May 9, 2013). "Austin is Reddit's No. 1 City for Views Per Capita – Worldwide". KUT. Retrieved September 29, 2018.
- "10 best big cities". Money Magazine (CNN). Archived from the original on August 5, 2008.
- "The 10 Greenest Cities in America". City Guide. MSN. Archived from the original on February 18, 2009.
- Patoski, Joe Nick (July–August 2010). "It's Just Different Here". Preservatiob. Retrieved October 31, 2011.
- Solomon, Dan (August 25, 2015). "Take A Look At Austin's Rainey Street As It Was Ten Years Ago". Texas Monthly. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
- "Austin designated as the world's only new 'City of Media Arts' | AustinTexas.gov - The Official Website of the City of Austin". www.austintexas.gov. Retrieved October 3, 2018.
- "The Fight Over Keeping Austin Weird". Time. July 5, 2013.
- "What do you miss most about 'old Austin'?". Statesman.com. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
- Kelli Ainsworth; Kelly Connelly; Wells Dunbar. "What Draws People to Austin (And What Drives Them Away)". Kut.org. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
- "What's The Story Behind Herman The Singing Plumber?". KUT Radio, Austin's NPR Station. March 25, 2021. Retrieved April 1, 2021.
- "How many people move to Austin a day? Here's the official number". Austin Business Journal. February 19, 2014. Retrieved August 4, 2016.
- "Austin, then and now". POrojects.statesman.com. Archived from the original on May 16, 2015. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
- Carlyle, Erin. "Austin, Texas - In Photos: America's Fastest-Growing Cities 2015". Forbes.
- "East Austin restaurant El Azteca likely closing after 53 years". Austin 360. Archived from the original on August 18, 2016. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
- "Dale Watson On Leaving Austin: 'The City Has Sold Itself'". NPR. March 8, 2018.
- Austin Reggae Festival, retrieved November 21, 2016
- Texas Craft Brewers Festival, retrieved November 21, 2016
- Art Alliance Austin, archived from the original on November 21, 2016, retrieved November 21, 2016
- The 15 Coolest Neighborhoods in the World in 2016, March 11, 2016, retrieved November 21, 2016
-  Archived October 25, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
- "Franklin BBQ, By the Numbers". Retrieved February 11, 2015.
- "The Best American Travel Destinations for Meat Lovers". December 16, 2014. Retrieved February 11, 2015.
- How Austin Became the Home of the Crucial Breakfast Taco, Eater Austin, Feb. 19, 2016,
- Dao, Dan Q. (April 10, 2017). "Kolaches are a Breakfast Staple Worth a Trip to the Lone Star State". Retrieved October 5, 2018.
- Gilbert, Jeffrey (June 2, 2005). "Fire ravages Austin's Oasis restaurant - Houston Chronicle". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved October 31, 2012.
- "USA Today Travel". Retrieved February 9, 2015.
- Downing, Amber (May 25, 2017). "Austin is a food truck heaven, says census data". KHOU. Retrieved October 5, 2018.
- Anderson, Will (January 19, 2018). "From hog tacos to smelly cheese: Downtown Austin food hall Fareground opens with something new for culinary scene". Austin Business Journal. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
- Puga, Eric (June 23, 2017). "Top 10 Austin Breweries". Austin Chronicle. Retrieved October 5, 2018.
- Wolinski, Cat (January 8, 2019). "The World's Top 10 Beer Destinations for 2019". VinePair. Retrieved January 9, 2019.
- "City Data Top 101 ZIP Codes with most drinking places 2005". City Data. Retrieved August 20, 2013.
- Zaragoza, Sandra (February 25, 2010). "New Austin City Limits home taking shape". Austin Business Journal.
- Calnan, Christopher (September 10, 2009). "New downtown hotel and residential tower".
- Rossie (2009), p. 247.
- Wolfe, April (September 27, 2017). "Torches at Fantastic Fest: Sorting Through the Ashes of a Film Festival". L.A. Weekly. Retrieved February 3, 2019.
- O'CONNELL, Joe (February 8, 2008). "No. 1 Austin does the Sundance". The Austin Chronicle. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
- Karacostas, Chase (June 21, 2018). "Fear the Walking Dead filmed at these Austin-area locations". San Antonio Express-News. Retrieved October 5, 2018.
- "Theater Guide". Austin American-Statesman. Archived from the original on February 26, 2008. Retrieved October 25, 2008.
- "Austin History Center: Nightclub on the Chitlin Circuit". City of Austin. Archived from the original on November 29, 2002. Retrieved September 14, 2008.
- "Fusebox Festival Starts Tomorrow". Gothamist LLC (New York). April 22, 2009. Archived from the original on May 13, 2012.
- "About The Paramount Theatre". Paramount Theatre and State Theatre Company. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved July 24, 2008.
- Faires, Robert (July 11, 2008). "Arts Review: Disney's Beauty". Austin Chronicle.
- "Locations". Austin Public Library. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
- "unbound: sin fronteras". Austin Public Library. Retrieved October 26, 2016.
- "Milwood Pocket Library Closing, Bookmobile Opening to Take its Place". Austin Public Library. Retrieved October 26, 2016.
- "Seaholm redevelopment ready to break ground at last". statesman. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
- Chaudhury, Nadia (December 16, 2016). "Austin Central Library's Cookbook Cafe Will Patch Together Recipes". Eater Austin. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
- "Austin Central Library". Time. Retrieved October 3, 2018.
- "Austin Enchanted Forest". Austin Enchanted Forest. Retrieved February 4, 2010.
- "Austin Farmer's Market". Archived from the original on January 7, 2010. Retrieved February 4, 2010.
- "Wildly Austin". Wildly Austin. Archived from the original on June 28, 2009. Retrieved February 4, 2010.
- "Congress Bridge Bats". Austin City Guide. Archived from the original on August 22, 2009. Retrieved February 15, 2010.
- "To the Bat Bridge!". austin.com. Archived from the original on January 26, 2010. Retrieved February 15, 2010.
- "Keep Texas Wild". Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. Archived from the original on January 26, 2010. Retrieved February 4, 2010.
- "HOPE Outdoor Gallery". Austin Convention & Visitors Bureau. Archived from the original on October 2, 2018. Retrieved October 1, 2018.
- Rambin, James (January 9, 2018). "With Demolition Pending, Castle Hill's Graffiti Gallery Isn't Long for This World". Austin TOWERS. Retrieved October 1, 2018.
- Cooper, Rachel. "Austin's Iconic Graffiti Park Closes As A New Canvas Is Prepped Near The Airport". www.kut.org. Retrieved January 5, 2019.
- Flores, Nancy (July 17, 2018). "EXCLUSIVE: Graffiti park's move to Carson Creek Ranch moved to 2019". Austin American-Statesman. Retrieved October 1, 2018.
- "Texas Wins Sixth College World Series. Title". Los Angeles Times. June 27, 2005. Retrieved June 22, 2010.
- "Horns of plenty: VY, Texas deny USC three-peat bid". ESPN. Retrieved June 22, 2010.
- "Texas 34, Texas Tech 24 box score". USA Today. September 20, 2009.
- "Ten largest cities without a major pro sports franchise in North America". Yahoo! Sports. June 10, 2011. Archived from the original on October 22, 2013. Retrieved October 19, 2013.
- "A to Z Encyclopedia of Ice Hockey – Au". Azhockey.com. Archived from the original on June 9, 2010. Retrieved June 22, 2010.
- "Texas Stars". Texasstarshockey.com. Archived from the original on June 19, 2010. Retrieved June 22, 2010.
- "Home - Austin Spurs". Austin Spurs.
- "Cap 10K race a running success". KXAN News. Austin, TX. April 11, 2010. Archived from the original on April 13, 2010. Retrieved February 2, 2011.
- "Austin Sub Sandwich Shop - Thundercloud Subs". Archived from the original on July 16, 2015. Retrieved July 16, 2015.
- Macur, Juliet (October 22, 2012). "Lance Armstrong Is Stripped of His 7 Tour de France Titles". The New York Times. Retrieved November 14, 2017.
- "Capital of Texas triathlon maps". October 3, 2009. Archived from the original on January 2, 2014.
- Americas, Circuit of The (April 4, 2019). "Contact Us". Circuit of The Americas.
- Maher, John (July 20, 2010). "Combs enthusiastic about F1 after watching Gritish Grand Prix". Austin American-Statesman. Archived from the original on July 23, 2010.
- Noble, Jonathan (May 25, 2010). "US Grand Prix returns to F1 in 2012". autosport.com. Haymarket Publishing. Archived from the original on May 26, 2010. Retrieved May 25, 2010.
- "Formula One Headed for Austin". Austin American-Statesman. May 25, 2010. Archived from the original on September 22, 2010. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
- "Tavo(CT)Hellmund Bio". Racing West.com. Archived from the original on June 1, 2010. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
- "USL Announces Return to Austin in 2019". Retrieved August 9, 2017.
- "Austin pro soccer franchise will roll in 2019 in 5,000-seat COTA venue". Archived from the original on June 30, 2018. Retrieved August 9, 2017.
- "About Austin Aces". Austin Aces. Archived from the original on August 19, 2014. Retrieved August 18, 2014.
- "Statement from Precourt Sports Ventures". October 17, 2017. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- "Statement from Precourt Sports Ventures". MLS2ATX. June 29, 2018. Archived from the original on July 2, 2018. Retrieved July 1, 2018.
- "Strong 'no Guerrero' message to stadium debate". statesman. Retrieved July 1, 2018.
- Ferree, Ben; USA, Pro Soccer (December 28, 2018). "Columbus Crew SC saved: MLS announces new ownership agreement".
- Bils, Chris. "Austin FC officially announced as 27th MLS club with 'local roots'". Austin American-Statesman.
- "Past NAB Recipients". National Recreation and Park Association. Archived from the original on December 7, 2008. Retrieved October 26, 2008.
- "Surprises, Sessions and a Social at NRPA Congress & Exposition". National Recreation and Park Association. Archived from the original on December 7, 2008. Retrieved October 26, 2008.
- Barnes, Michael. "Austin Answered: The evolving names of Austin's big central lakes". Austin American-Statesman. Retrieved February 11, 2020.
- "Austin Parks and Recreation Department, Red Bud Isle". Archived from the original on November 21, 2009.
- "Projects Page". The Trail Foundation. November 30, 2015. Retrieved November 30, 2015.
- "Meets at this location". athletic.net. Retrieved September 15, 2018.
- "Zilker Metropolitan Park". City of Austin. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Andrew Jackson Zilker". Austin Public Library. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- Smith, Amy (December 6, 2013). "Then There's This: Turf Fight at Auditorium Shores". Austin Chronicle. Retrieved April 23, 2015.
- "Auditorium Shores". Fodor's. Retrieved April 23, 2015.
- "Friends celebrate and help Deep Eddy". News 8 Austin. June 5, 2005. Archived from the original on December 7, 2008. Retrieved October 14, 2008.
- "Texas Natural Areas At Risk" (PDF). Environment Texas. February 23, 2006. p. 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 28, 2008. Retrieved October 14, 2008.
- "Temperature, Water, Degrees Celsius Water Year October 2005 to September 2006" (PDF). Water-Data Report 2006, 08155500 Barton Springs at Austin, Texas. U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey. 2006. pp. 13–15. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 9, 2008. Retrieved August 19, 2008.
- "Temperature, Water, Degrees Celsius Water Year October 2006 to September 2007" (PDF). Water-Data Report 2007, 08155500 Barton Springs at Austin, Texas. U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey. 2007. pp. 11–13. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 9, 2008. Retrieved August 19, 2008.
- "Water Quality Records" (PDF). Water-Data Report 2007, 08155500 Barton Springs at Austin, Texas. U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey. 2007. p. 4. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 9, 2008. Retrieved August 19, 2008.
- "Hamilton Pool Nature Preserve". Travis County, Texas. Archived from the original on January 24, 2010. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
- Findell, Elizabeth. "Camping comes to Austin public spaces — but not at City Hall". Austin American-Statesman.
- Gould, Lewis L. (1999), Lady Bird Johnson, Our Environmental First Lady, University Press of Kansas
- "Austin: Outdoors". Texas Monthly. Emmis Communications: 22. June 1979.
- "Mount Bonnell". Recorded Texas Historic Landmark. William Nienke, Sam Morrow. Archived from the original on July 7, 2011. Retrieved October 3, 2018.
- Tucker, Brandon (March 16, 2017). "Tour the host golf course of the WGC-Dell Match Play, Austin Country Club". Golf Advisor. Retrieved March 27, 2017.
- Barnes, Michael (April 1, 2015). "Golfers and nonplayers remain fond of former Austin Country Club". Austin American-Statesman. (Texas). Archived from the original on March 28, 2017. Retrieved March 27, 2017.
- Folan, Evan (January 2, 2017). "2016 homicide rate: El Paso remains steady as Austin, San Antonio experience sharp increase". KVIA. Archived from the original on January 5, 2017. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
- "Austin Murder Total Highest Since 2010". Twcnews.com. December 29, 2016. Archived from the original on January 5, 2017. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
- "Violent crime rate drops in Austin, but grows in suburbs, data". Mystatesman.com. September 28, 2016. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
- FOX. "Eighth body identified in Del Valle - Story | KTBC". Fox7austin.com. Retrieved May 25, 2017.
- "Zip code report" (PDF). austintexas.gov. 2016. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
- "The UT Tower Shooting Archives". Texas Monthly. August 1, 1966. Retrieved May 25, 2017.
- "Paulding County, GA - History of SWAT". Paulding.gov. August 1, 1966. Retrieved May 25, 2017.
- "The Birth and Evolution of the SWAT Unit - Article - POLICE Magazine". Policemag.com. April 1, 1997. Retrieved May 25, 2017.
- "IRS Opts for New Address in Austin". KXAS-TV. August 6, 2010. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
- "Austin Plane Crash Cost IRS $38.6 Million". Accounting Today. July 18, 2012. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
- Hvistendahl, Mara HvistendahlMicah LeeJordan SmithMara; Lee, Micah; SmithDecember 17 2020, Jordan; P.m, 9:00. "Russian Hackers Have Been Inside Austin City Network for Months". The Intercept.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
- "Austin officials quiet on reports that city network hacked". www.msn.com.
- Greenberger, Scott S. (April 6, 1997). "From the archives: Austin faces ghost of racial history in City Council contest". Austin American-Statesman. Retrieved August 26, 2018.
- "Availability of FEIS" (PDF). Fort Worth District U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 9, 2009. Retrieved December 29, 2008.
- "Austin City Hall". Hunter Douglas Contract. Archived from the original on November 19, 2008. Retrieved December 29, 2008.
- Witt, Howard (September 28, 2007). "In heart of Texas, drumbeat for green". Chicago Tribune.
- "Austin City Hall". City of Austin. Retrieved December 29, 2008.
-  Archived October 11, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
- "Austin Fire Department". Austintexas.gov. Retrieved September 15, 2014.
- "Austin Travis-County EMS Department". Austintexas.gov. Retrieved October 17, 2014.
- "Our Campaigns - Candidate - Natasha Harper-Madison". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved November 22, 2019.
- "Delia Garza". Ballotpedia. Retrieved November 22, 2019.
- Gibson, Lay J; Renteria, Alfonso Corona (July 11, 2019). Gibson, Lay James; Rentería, Alfonso Corona (eds.). The U.S. and Mexico: Borderland Development and the National Economies. doi:10.4324/9780429315503. ISBN 9780429315503. Retrieved November 22, 2019.
- "Gregorio Casar". Ballotpedia. Retrieved November 22, 2019.
- Smith, Amy. "Kitchen's District Changes Flavor". www.austinchronicle.com. Retrieved November 22, 2019.
- "Mackenzie Kelly". Ballotpedia. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
- "Leslie Pool". Ballotpedia. Retrieved November 22, 2019.
- "Paige Ellis represents sharp political shift for Southwest Austin's District 8". Austin Monitor. December 28, 2018. Retrieved November 22, 2019.
- "Randi Shade Donor History Vastly More Democratic Than Kathie Tovo". Burnt Orange Report. May 30, 2011. Archived from the original on February 17, 2020. Retrieved November 22, 2019.
- "Alison Alter". Ballotpedia. Retrieved November 22, 2019.
- "Juan Castillo, "New Federal Courthouse opens in Austin"". Austin American Statesman, December 3, 2012. Retrieved January 27, 2013.
- "Austin District Office Archived January 25, 2010, at the Wayback Machine." Texas Department of Transportation. Retrieved on January 11, 2010.
-  Archived September 4, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
- Verhovek, Sam Howe (November 12, 2000). "COUNTING THE VOTE: THE SCENE; In Austin, the Jockeying, Along With the Partying, Is on Hold". The New York Times. Retrieved January 7, 2009.
- Welsh-Huggins, Andrew (July 17, 2008). "Texas Democrats look to Obama to help them rebound". Archived from the original on February 12, 2009. Retrieved January 7, 2009.
- "Rick Perry Booed on "Jimmy Kimmel Live" at SXSW in Austin". PEOPLE.com. Retrieved January 14, 2021.
- "Latest vote, county by county". USA Today. November 16, 2004.
- "November 8, 2005 Joint Special Elections" (PDF). Travis County, Texas. November 8, 2005. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 28, 2008. Retrieved October 19, 2008.
- Nichols, Lee (November 18, 2005). "Austin – the Only Gay Place". The Austin Chronicle. Retrieved October 19, 2008.
- "79(R) HJR 6 – Enrolled version – Bill Text". Archived from the original on November 25, 2005.
- "Obama, Clinton Agree to Disagree". CNN Politics.com. CNN. February 22, 2008. Archived from the original on June 9, 2009. Retrieved June 16, 2009.
- Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". Uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
- Stohr, Greg (June 28, 2006). "Republican Texas Redistricting Upheld by Top Court". Bloomberg. Retrieved July 24, 2008.
- Zaragosa, Sara (August 28, 2009). "Conservancy shifts into high gear; Efforts steer land away from development". Austin Business Journal.
- Swearingen, Jr., William (April 1, 2010). Environmental City. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press. pp. 18, 19. ISBN 978-0-292-72181-4. Archived from the original on October 15, 2008. Retrieved July 25, 2010.
- Hoffberger, Chase (June 22, 2018). "Say Goodbye to the Plastic Bag Ban; Texas Supreme Court rules city ordinances can't override state law". The Austin Chronicle.
- "Austin city, Texas – American Community Survey 2005–2009". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 11, 2020. Retrieved June 2, 2011.
- "Bachelor's degree attainment, age 25 and over". Brookings Institution. Archived from the original on March 27, 2011.
- "Facts & Figures | The University of Texas at Austin". www.utexas.edu.
- "Austin Chamber of Commerce Greater Austin Profile". Archived from the original on June 18, 2010. Retrieved July 8, 2010.
- "Regional School Districts and the City of Austin." City of Austin. March 2013. Retrieved on August 4, 2016.
- "Community Impact Distribution Map". Community Impact Newspaper. October 29, 2008. Archived from the original on October 13, 2008. Retrieved October 28, 2008.
- Pérez-Peña, Richard (July 17, 2009). "Web News Start-Up Has Its Eye on Texas". The New York Times. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- Thornton, John (August 1, 2009). "What If: The Non-Profit Media Model". HuffPost.
-  Archived July 28, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
- Beach, Patrick (August 15, 2008). "KUT's 50 years of not playing the hits". Austin American-Statesman. Archived from the original on December 22, 2008. Retrieved October 25, 2008.
- "KOOP Website". Koop.org. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- "KVRX Website". Kvrx.org. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- Holloway, Diane (October 29, 2007). "Austin stations win Lone Star Emmys". Austin American-Statesman. Archived from the original on December 7, 2008. Retrieved October 25, 2008.
- "America's Talk: Compelling Talk Show Hosts". Siriusxm.com. Retrieved January 19, 2013.
- "Table B08406. Sex of Workers by Means of Transportation for Workplace Geography – Universe: Workers 16 Years and Over". 2009 American Community Survey. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 4, 2011.
- Freemark, Yonah (October 13, 2010). "Transit Mode Share Trends Looking Steady; Rail Appears to Encourage Non-Automobile Commutes". Transport Politic. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- "2015 American Community Survey, 1-year estimates: Commuting Characteristics by Sex". American Fact Finder. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- "Car Ownership in U.S. Cities Data and Map". Governing. Retrieved May 3, 2018.
- Ren, Victor (June 11, 2019). "Austin has some of the worst traffic congestion in the world, study finds". Austin American Statesman. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
- Wear, Ben (September 28, 2009). "Positive signs for financial future of Texas 130;". Austin American-Statesman. pp. B–1. Retrieved August 7, 2010.
Report on the tollway...has been making more money than projected.
- "Austin, Texas Archived November 22, 2008, at the Wayback Machine." Greyhound Lines. Retrieved on April 7, 2009.
- "Grupo Senda – Turimex Internacional". Grupo Senda. Retrieved August 29, 2009.
- "Megabus.Com Expands Service To/From Dallas, Houston, San Antonio And Five Cities". Us.megabus.com. Archived from the original on August 6, 2012. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- "Bus Stops". Megabus. Archived from the original on December 9, 2019. Retrieved October 31, 2019.
- Maas, Jimmy; Philpott, Ben (October 18, 2016). "CAMPO Vote Derails Lone Star Rail Project". KUT. Retrieved May 18, 2018.
- "All Systems Go Long-Range Transit Plan". Capital Metro. Archived from the original on March 3, 2009. Retrieved April 23, 2009.
- "Austin City Council puts rail bond on ballot". Community Impact Newspaper. Archived from the original on August 12, 2014. Retrieved September 15, 2014.
- "ProjectConnect". capmetro.org. Retrieved August 13, 2020.
- Widner, Cindy (June 26, 2018). "Driverless shuttle pilot program coming to downtown Austin". Curbed. Retrieved October 1, 2018.
- Trejo, Rebecca (September 18, 2018). "Capital Metro to consider self-driving buses". KVUE. Retrieved October 1, 2018.
- "Uber in Austin, TX". Archived from the original on July 26, 2019.
- Inc, Lyft. "Cities". Lyft. Retrieved February 26, 2020.
- "About us". Ride Austin. Retrieved February 26, 2020.
- MacMillan, Douglas; Silverman, Rachel Emma (May 9, 2016). "Uber, Lyft Shut Down in Austin Over Fingerprint Vote. Ride-hailing companies suspend operations in Austin". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 14, 2016.
- Woodyard, Chris; Toppo, Greg (May 8, 2016). "Uber, Lyft halt Austin service after losing vote". USA Today. Retrieved August 14, 2016.
- Jechow, Andy (March 2, 2018). "Ride-hail app Fasten shutting down operations in Austin". KXAN. Retrieved September 30, 2018.
- Wear, Ben (November 30, 2016). "Austin B-cycle, with rentals on the rise, adding bikes and stations". Austin American-Statesman. Retrieved September 30, 2018.
- Widner, Cindy (August 27, 2018). "Lime makes dockless bikes, scooters more affordable to underserved". Curbed. Retrieved September 30, 2018.
- Allbright, Claire (May 1, 2018). "A flock of electric scooters suddenly descended on Austin. Now the city is scrambling to regulate them". The Texas Tribune. Retrieved February 26, 2020.
- Allbright, Claire (May 1, 2018). "A flock of electric scooters suddenly descended on Austin. Now the city is scrambling to regulate them". Texas Tribune. Retrieved October 1, 2018.
- Young, Ryan (July 9, 2018). "E-bikes, e-scooters not welcome in Austin parks". Austin Monitor. Retrieved October 1, 2018.
- Widner, Cindy (October 1, 2018). "ACL Fest 2018 will have dedicated parking for dockless scooters and bikes". Curbed. Retrieved October 1, 2018.
- Denney, Amy (February 15, 2018). "Free electric cab service expands into downtown Austin, sees success at Domain Northside". Community Impact Newspaper. Retrieved October 1, 2018.
- Dille, Ian (September 19, 2016). "The 50 Best Bike Cities of 2016". Bicycling Magazine. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
- "Bike Austin". Bike Austin.
- "About Us; Contact - BikeTexas". Biketexas.org. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
- "Bike Survey Results | BikeUT | Parking & Transportation Services (PTS) | The University of Texas at Austin". Parking.utexas.edu. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
- "2011 City and Neighborhood Rankings". Walk Score. 2011. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
- Bean, Keena (March 25, 2016). "The 10 Most Walkable Neighborhoods in Texas". Redfin.
- "Sister and Friendship Cities Program". City of Austin. Retrieved October 26, 2020.
- "Austin City Council Minutes". Austin City Connection. City of Austin. Retrieved March 21, 2010.
- "What Is The Difference Between A Sister City And A Friendship City?". City of Austin. December 31, 2019. Retrieved January 8, 2020.
- Abbott, Mary Lu (2003). Romantic Weekends Texas (2 ed.). Edison, New Jersey: Hunter Publishing. ISBN 978-1-58843-358-9.
- Baird, David (2009). Frommer's San Antonio & Austin. Hoboken, New Jersey: Frommer's. ISBN 978-0-470-43789-6.
- Erlichman, Howard J. (2006). Camino Del Norte: How a Series of Watering Holes, Fords, And Dirt Trails Evolved into Interstate 35 in Texas. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University Press. ISBN 978-1-58544-473-1.
- Rossie, Cam; Hylton, Hilary (2009). Insiders' Guide to Austin. Guilford, Connecticut: Global Pequot. ISBN 978-0-7627-4864-8.
- Thompson, Karen; Howell, Kathy R. (2000). Austin, Texas. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7385-0832-0.
- Vines, Robert A. (1984). Trees of central Texas. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-78058-3.
- AustinTexas.gov - official city website
- Austin Convention & Visitors Bureau
- Austin Chamber of Commerce
- Historic photographs from the Austin History Center, hosted by the Portal to Texas History
- Austin from the Handbook of Texas Online
- Geographic data related to Austin, Texas at OpenStreetMap
- Long, Joshua (2010). Weird City: Sense of Place and Creative Resistance in Austin, Texas. University of Texas Press.
- Shank, Barry (1994). Dissonant identities: the rock'n'roll scene in Austin, Texas. Hanover, New Hampshire: University Press of New England. ISBN 978-0-8195-6276-0.
- Swearingen Jr., William Scott Environmental City: People, Place, and the Meaning of Modern Austin (University of Texas Press; 2010) 273 pages; traces the history of environmentalism in the Texas capital, which has been part of a larger effort to preserve Austin's quality of life and sense of place.